Socio Religious Reform Movements
Young Bengal Movement
Founder - Henry Louis Vivian Derozio
Year – Late 1820’s
Place - Calcutta
• Young Bengal Movement was started by Sir Henry Louis Vivian Derozio, teacher of Hindu College.
• The supporters of Young Bengal Movement were influenced by the ideals of the French Revolution.
• They preached the ideals of liberty, equity and fraternity.
• He taught his followers to live and die for truth.
• They emphasized on female education and rights of woman.
Founder – Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Year – 1828
Place - Calcutta
• Brahmo Samaj is a religious movement founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1828.
• The Brahmo Samaj believed in the existence of one God, who is Omni-present and omniscient.
• It condemned some of the evil practices of Hinduism like caste system, Sati, Child Marriages etc.
• the roots of much of the modern thinking in India can be traced back to Brahmo Samaj.
Founder - Syed Ahmad Khan
Year - 1857
Place - Aligarh (Uttar Pradesh)
• Aligarh Movement was started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan to educate the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent after the defeat of the rebels in Indian rebellion of 1857.
• It had enormous success and had a profound impact on the future of the subcontinent. In 1875, Syed Ahmad Khan founded the Mohammedan Anglo - Oriental College at Aligarh as a centre for spreading western sciences and culture.
• Later this College grew into the Aligarh Muslim University.
Radha Soami Movement
Founder - Shiv Dayal Singh
Year – 1861
Place - Agra
• Radha Soami Movement was founded in 1861 by Shiv Dayal Singh, of Agra, a banker by profession.
• Shiv Dayal Saheb was also popularly known as Tulsi Ram or Swamiji Maharaj.
• The Radha soamis believe in one Supreme Being, the supremacy of the Guru, a “company of the pious people” (Satsang), and simple social life.
• They believe that there is no need to renounce the worldly life for spiritual attainments.
Founder – Dr. Atmaram Pandurang
Year – 1867
Place - Bombay
• Prarthana Samaj was founded in 1867 in Mumbai by Dr. Atmaram Pandurang as an off shoot of the Brahma Samaj.
• It was later joined by M.G. Ranade and R.G. Bhandarkar. It aimed at removing the evil social customs.
• It preached the worship of one God and tried to free religion of caste system and priest domination.
Founder - Swami Dayanand Saraswati
Year - 1875
Place - Bombay
• Arya Samaj is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875.
• Swami Dayanand Saraswati rejected all non-Vedic beliefs.
• Arya Samaj condemned idolatry, animal sacrifices, and ancestor worship, and pilgrimages, offerings made in temples, the caste system, untouchability and child marriage.
• The primary aim of the Arya Samaj is to do good for all, that is promote physical, spiritual and social wellbeing.
Founder - Swami Vivekananda
Year - 1897
Place – West Bengal
• Ramakrishna Mission is a humanitarian organisation founded by Sri Rama Krishnan Parama hamsa’s Chief disciple Swami Vivekananda in 1897.
• The aims and ideals of the mission are purely spiritual and humanitarian and has no relation with politics.
• The Mission conducts extensive work in healthcare, disaster relief, rural management, tribal welfare, elementary and higher education and culture.
• The headquarters of the Ramakrishna Mission is at Belur Math near Kolkata.
Servants of India Society
Founder - Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Year - 1905
Place - Maharashtra
• The Servants of India Society was formed in Pune, Maharashtra, on June 12, 1905 by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who left the Deccan Education Society to form this association.
• Along with him were a small group of educated Indians, as Natesh Appaji Dravid, Gopal Krishna Deodhar and Anant Patwardhan who wanted to promote social and human development and overthrow the British rule in India.
• The Society organized many campaigns to promote education, sanitation, health care and fight the social evils of untouchability and discrimination, alcoholism, poverty, oppression of women and domestic abuse.
• The publication of The Hitavada, the organ of the Society in English from Nagpur commenced in 1911
Social Service League
Founder - Narayan Malhar Joshi
Year - 1911
Place - Bombay
• Narayan Malhar Joshi, a leading member of the Servants of India Society, founded the Social Service League in 1911.
• The objective of the movement was “to collect and study social facts and discuss social problems with a view to forming public opinion on questions of social service” and to secure for the masses a better quality of life and work.
• The League opened a number of day and night schools, libraries, dispensaries and started boys’ clubs and scouts corps.