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Top 10 Cryptography Algorithms in 2018
 
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In this video, I listed out Top 10 Cryptography Algorithms 10. MD5 9. SHA-0 8. SHA-1 7. HMAC 6. AES 5. Blowfish 4. DES 3. International Data Encryption Algorithm 2. Twofish 1. RSA Website: http://www.allabouttesting.org Please share and subscribe this video Disclaimer: This video is for educational purpose only. Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.
Views: 1840 All About Testing
Asymmetric encryption - Simply explained
 
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How does public-key cryptography work? What is a private key and a public key? Why is asymmetric encryption different from symmetric encryption? I'll explain all of these in plain English! 🐦 Follow me on Twitter: https://twitter.com/savjee ✏️ Check out my blog: https://www.savjee.be 👍🏻 Like my Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/savjee
Comparison of Encryption Algorithms
 
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This video is part of the Udacity course "Intro to Information Security". Watch the full course at https://www.udacity.com/course/ud459
Views: 881 Udacity
Symmetric Key and Public Key Encryption
 
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Modern day encryption is performed in two different ways. Check out http://YouTube.com/ITFreeTraining or http://itfreetraining.com for more of our always free training videos. Using the same key or using a pair of keys called the public and private keys. This video looks at how these systems work and how they can be used together to perform encryption. Download the PDF handout http://itfreetraining.com/Handouts/Ce... Encryption Types Encryption is the process of scrambling data so it cannot be read without a decryption key. Encryption prevents data being read by a 3rd party if it is intercepted by a 3rd party. The two encryption methods that are used today are symmetric and public key encryption. Symmetric Key Symmetric key encryption uses the same key to encrypt data as decrypt data. This is generally quite fast when compared with public key encryption. In order to protect the data, the key needs to be secured. If a 3rd party was able to gain access to the key, they could decrypt any data that was encrypt with that data. For this reason, a secure channel is required to transfer the key if you need to transfer data between two points. For example, if you encrypted data on a CD and mail it to another party, the key must also be transferred to the second party so that they can decrypt the data. This is often done using e-mail or the telephone. In a lot of cases, sending the data using one method and the key using another method is enough to protect the data as an attacker would need to get both in order to decrypt the data. Public Key Encryption This method of encryption uses two keys. One key is used to encrypt data and the other key is used to decrypt data. The advantage of this is that the public key can be downloaded by anyone. Anyone with the public key can encrypt data that can only be decrypted using a private key. This means the public key does not need to be secured. The private key does need to be keep in a safe place. The advantage of using such a system is the private key is not required by the other party to perform encryption. Since the private key does not need to be transferred to the second party there is no risk of the private key being intercepted by a 3rd party. Public Key encryption is slower when compared with symmetric key so it is not always suitable for every application. The math used is complex but to put it simply it uses the modulus or remainder operator. For example, if you wanted to solve X mod 5 = 2, the possible solutions would be 2, 7, 12 and so on. The private key provides additional information which allows the problem to be solved easily. The math is more complex and uses much larger numbers than this but basically public and private key encryption rely on the modulus operator to work. Combing The Two There are two reasons you want to combine the two. The first is that often communication will be broken into two steps. Key exchange and data exchange. For key exchange, to protect the key used in data exchange it is often encrypted using public key encryption. Although slower than symmetric key encryption, this method ensures the key cannot accessed by a 3rd party while being transferred. Since the key has been transferred using a secure channel, a symmetric key can be used for data exchange. In some cases, data exchange may be done using public key encryption. If this is the case, often the data exchange will be done using a small key size to reduce the processing time. The second reason that both may be used is when a symmetric key is used and the key needs to be provided to multiple users. For example, if you are using encryption file system (EFS) this allows multiple users to access the same file, which includes recovery users. In order to make this possible, multiple copies of the same key are stored in the file and protected from being read by encrypting it with the public key of each user that requires access. References "Public-key cryptography" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-k... "Encryption" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encryption
Views: 417270 itfreetraining
Hashing Algorithms and Security - Computerphile
 
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Audible free book: http://www.audible.com/computerphile Hashing Algorithms are used to ensure file authenticity, but how secure are they and why do they keep changing? Tom Scott hashes it out. More from Tom Scott: http://www.youtube.com/user/enyay and https://twitter.com/tomscott http://www.facebook.com/computerphile https://twitter.com/computer_phile This video was filmed and edited by Sean Riley. Pigeon Sound Effects courtesy of http://www.freesfx.co.uk/ Computerphile is a sister project to Brady Haran's Numberphile. See the full list of Brady's video projects at: http://bit.ly/bradychannels
Views: 692145 Computerphile
21. Cryptography: Hash Functions
 
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MIT 6.046J Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Spring 2015 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-046JS15 Instructor: Srinivas Devadas In this lecture, Professor Devadas covers the basics of cryptography, including desirable properties of cryptographic functions, and their applications to security. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 61755 MIT OpenCourseWare
Differences Between Encryption, Encoding and Hashing
 
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Differences Between Encryption, Encoding and Hashing
Views: 4390 LearnEveryone
How secure is 256 bit security?
 
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Supplement to the cryptocurrency video: How hard is it to find a 256-bit hash just by guessing and checking? What kind of computer would that take? Cryptocurrency video: https://youtu.be/bBC-nXj3Ng4 Thread for Q&A questions: http://3b1b.co/questions Several people have commented about how 2^256 would be the maximum number of attempts, not the average. This depends on the thing being attempted. If it's guessing a private key, you are correct, but for something like guessing which input to a hash function gives a desired output (as in bitcoin mining, for example), which is the kind of thing I had in mind here, 2^256 would indeed be the average number of attempts needed, at least for a true cryptographic hash function. Think of rolling a die until you get a 6, how many rolls do you need to make, on average? Music by Vince Rubinetti: https://vincerubinetti.bandcamp.com/album/the-music-of-3blue1brown ------------------ 3blue1brown is a channel about animating math, in all senses of the word animate. And you know the drill with YouTube, if you want to stay posted on new videos, subscribe, and click the bell to receive notifications (if you're into that). If you are new to this channel and want to see more, a good place to start is this playlist: http://3b1b.co/recommended Various social media stuffs: Website: https://www.3blue1brown.com Twitter: https://twitter.com/3Blue1Brown Patreon: https://patreon.com/3blue1brown Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/3blue1brown Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/3Blue1Brown
Views: 768516 3Blue1Brown
Types of Cryptography
 
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This video is part of the Udacity course "Intro to Information Security". Watch the full course at https://www.udacity.com/course/ud459
Views: 3176 Udacity
0406 AES, DES, 3DES
 
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Views: 9253 sonu123kashni
Difference between Asymmetric Key and Symmetric Key Cryptography
 
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Difference between Asymmetric Key and Symmetric Key Cryptography Keywords: Asymmetric Key Cryptography Symmetric Key Cryptography Network Security Notes
SHA Algorithm Explained
 
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In this video, following topics covered: 1. Hash Function 2. SHA family 3. SHA-1 4. Sha-2 Website: http://www.allabouttesting.org Please share and subscribe this video Disclaimer: This video is for educational purpose only. Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.
Views: 1364 All About Testing
Encryption and Hashing explanation and differences in 5 minutes
 
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A very basic level and almost non technical explanation of the terms encryption and hashing
Views: 724 Imran Hossain
What Is Big O? (Comparing Algorithms)
 
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With so many ways to solve a problem, how do we know which was is the right one? Let's look at one of the most common methods for analyzing algorithms: Big O Notation. Created by: Cory Chang Produced by: Vivian Liu Script Editor: Justin Chen, Brandon Chen, Elaine Chang, Zachary Greenberg Twitter: https://twitter.com/UBehavior — Extra Resources: Big O Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_O_notation Analysis of Algorithms: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analysis_of_algorithms Time Complexity: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_complexity Sorting: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sorting_algorithm Fast Inverse Square Root: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_inverse_square_root Picture Credits: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/71/08/80/7108806b2c021ac3fba90f55983a4c5c.png
Views: 62594 Undefined Behavior
Public key cryptography - Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (full version)
 
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The history behind public key cryptography & the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm. We also have a video on RSA here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXB-V_Keiu8
Views: 586322 Art of the Problem
What is CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE? What does CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE mean? CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE meaning
 
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What is CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE? What does CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE mean? CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE meaning - CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE definition - CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ In cryptography, a nonce is an arbitrary number that may only be used once. It is similar in spirit to a nonce word, hence the name. It is often a random or pseudo-random number issued in an authentication protocol to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks. They can also be useful as initialization vectors and in cryptographic hash function. A nonce is an arbitrary number used only once in a cryptographic communication, in the spirit of a nonce word. They are often random or pseudo-random numbers. Many nonces also include a timestamp to ensure exact timeliness, though this requires clock synchronization between organizations. The addition of a client nonce ("cnonce") helps to improve the security in some ways as implemented in digest access authentication. To ensure that a nonce is used only once, it should be time-variant (including a suitably fine-grained timestamp in its value), or generated with enough random bits to ensure a probabilistically insignificant chance of repeating a previously generated value. Some authors define pseudo-randomness (or unpredictability) as a requirement for a nonce. Authentication protocols may use nonces to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks. For instance, nonces are used in HTTP digest access authentication to calculate an MD5 digest of the password. The nonces are different each time the 401 authentication challenge response code is presented, thus making replay attacks virtually impossible. The scenario of ordering products over the Internet can provide an example of the usefulness of nonces in replay attacks. An attacker could take the encrypted information and—without needing to decrypt—could continue to send a particular order to the supplier, thereby ordering products over and over again under the same name and purchase information. The nonce is used to give 'originality' to a given message so that if the company receives any other orders from the same person with the same nonce, it will discard those as invalid orders. A nonce may be used to ensure security for a stream cipher. Where the same key is used for more than one message and then a different nonce is used to ensure that the keystream is different for different messages encrypted with that key; often the message number is used. Secret nonce values are used by the Lamport signature scheme as a signer-side secret which can be selectively revealed for comparison to public hashes for signature creation and verification. Initialization vectors may be referred to as nonces, as they are typically random or pseudo-random. Nonces are used in proof-of-work systems to vary the input to a cryptographic hash function so as to obtain a hash for a certain input that fulfills certain arbitrary conditions. In doing so, it becomes far more difficult to create a "desirable" hash than to verify it, shifting the burden of work onto one side of a transaction or system. For example, proof of work, using hash functions, was considered as a means to combat email spam by forcing email senders to find a hash value for the email (which included a timestamp to prevent pre-computation of useful hashes for later use) that had an arbitrary number of leading zeroes, by hashing the same input with a large number of nonce values until a "desirable" hash was obtained. Similarly, the bitcoin block-chain hashing algorithm can be tuned to an arbitrary difficulty by changing the required minimum/maximum value of the hash so that the number of bitcoins awarded for new blocks does not increase linearly with increased network computation power as new users join. This is likewise achieved by forcing bitcoin miners to add nonce values to the value being hashed to change the hash algorithm output. Because cryptographic hash algorithms cannot easily be predicted based on their inputs, this makes the act of blockchain hashing and the possibility of being awarded bitcoins something of a lottery, where the first "miner" to find a nonce that delivers a desirable hash is awarded valuable bitcoins.
Views: 4405 The Audiopedia
Algorithmic efficiency | Journey into cryptography | Computer Science | Khan Academy
 
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How can we improve the speed of a (deterministic) primality test? Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/comp-number-theory/v/sieve-of-eratosthenes-prime-adventure-part-4?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/comp-number-theory/v/what-is-computer-memory-prime-adventure-part-7?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Computer Science on Khan Academy: Learn select topics from computer science - algorithms (how we solve common problems in computer science and measure the efficiency of our solutions), cryptography (how we protect secret information), and information theory (how we encode and compress information). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Computer Science channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC8uHgAVBOy5h1fDsjQghWCw?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 24861 Khan Academy Labs
22. Cryptography: Encryption
 
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MIT 6.046J Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Spring 2015 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-046JS15 Instructor: Srinivas Devadas In this lecture, Professor Devadas continues with cryptography, introducing encryption methods. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 14596 MIT OpenCourseWare
Network Security - Block Cipher Mode of Operation
 
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Fundamentals of Computer Network Security This specialization in intended for IT professionals, computer programmers, managers, IT security professionals who like to move up ladder, who are seeking to develop network system security skills. Through four courses, we will cover the Design and Analyze Secure Networked Systems, Develop Secure Programs with Basic Cryptography and Crypto API, Hacking and Patching Web Applications, Perform Penetration Testing, and Secure Networked Systems with Firewall and IDS, which will prepare you to perform tasks as Cyber Security Engineer, IT Security Analyst, and Cyber Security Analyst. course 2 Basic Cryptography and Programming with Crypto API: About this course: In this MOOC, we will learn the basic concepts and principles of cryptography, apply basic cryptoanalysis to decrypt messages encrypted with mono-alphabetic substitution cipher, and discuss the strongest encryption technique of the one-time-pad and related quantum key distribution systems. We will also learn the efficient symmetric key cryptography algorithms for encrypting data, discuss the DES and AES standards, study the criteria for selecting AES standard, present the block cipher operating modes and discuss how they can prevent and detect the block swapping attacks, and examine how to defend against replay attacks. We will learn the Diffie-Hellman Symmetric Key Exchange Protocol to generate a symmetric key for two parties to communicate over insecure channel. We will learn the modular arithmetic and the Euler Totient Theorem to appreciate the RSA Asymmetric Crypto Algorithm, and use OpenSSL utility to realize the basic operations of RSA Crypto Algorithm. Armed with these knowledge, we learn how to use PHP Crypto API to write secure programs for encrypting and decrypting documents and for signing and verify documents. We then apply these techniques to enhance the registration process of a web site which ensures the account created is actually requested by the owner of the email account. Module 2 - Symmetric Key Cryptography In this module we present the basic mechanism of symmetric key crytography algorithms, discuss the DES and AES standard, describe the criteria for selecting AES standard, present the block cipher operating modes and discuss how the block swapping attacks and replay attacks can be prevented and detected. Learning Objectives • Understand the criteria for selecting crypto algorithms • Perform cryptoanalysis on simple ciphers • Select operating modes for symmetric encryption and to prevent block swapping and replay attacks • Understand DES and AES standards and their buildig blocks Subscribe at: https://www.coursera.org
Views: 98 intrigano
Skipjack cipher algorithm encryption
 
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Skipjack 64-bit block cipher symmetrical encryption
Views: 541 Atef Bentahar
IPsec VPN Tunnel
 
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Pre-setup: Usually this is the perimeter router so allow the firewall. Optional access-list acl permit udp source wildcard destination wildcard eq isakmp access-list acl permit esp source wildcard destination wildcard access-list acl permit ahp source wildcard destination wildcard You need to enable to securityk9 technology-package Router(config)#license boot module c2900 technology-package securityk9 Router(config)#reload Task 1: Configure the ISAKMP policy for IKE Phase 1 There are seven default isakmp policies. The most secure is the default. We will configure our own. You can remember this by HAGLE. Hash, Authentication, Group (DH), Lifetime, Encryption. Router(config)#crypto isakmp policy 1 Router(config-isakmp)#hash sha Router(config-isakmp)#authentication pre-share Router(config-isakmp)#group 5 Router(config-isakmp)#lifetime 3600 Router(config-isakmp)#encryption aes 256 We used a pre-shared key for authentication so we need to specify the password for the first phase. Router(config)#crypto isakmp key derpyisbestpony address 208.77.5.1 show crypto isakmp policy Task 2: Configure the IPsec Policy for IKE Phase 2 Configure the encryption and hashing algorithms that you will use for the data sent thought the IPsec tunnel. Hence the transform. Router(config)#crypto ipsec transform-set transform_name esp-aes esp-sha-hmac Task 3: Configure ACL to define interesting traffic Even though the tunnel is setup it doesn’t exist yet. Interesting traffic must be detected before IKE Phase 1 negotiations can begin. Allow the local lan to the remote lan. Router(config)#access-list 101 permit ip 192.168.0.0 0.0.0.255 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255 show crypto isakmp sa Task 4: Configure a Crypto Map for the IPsec Policy Now that interesting traffic is defined and an IPsec transform set is configured, you need to bind them together with a crypto map. Rotuer(config)# crypto map map_name seq_num ipsec-isakmp What traffic will be interesting? The access-list we made before. Router(config-crypto-map)#match address 101 The transform-set we created earlier for the IPsec tunnel. Router(config-crypto-map)# set transform-set transform_name The peer router you’re connecting to. Router(config-crypto-map)#set peer 172.30.2.2 You need to set the type of DH you want to use. Router(config-crypto-map)#set pfs group5 How long these setting will last before it’s renegotiated Router(config-crypto-map)#set security-association lifetime seconds 900 Task 5: Apply the IPsec Policy Apply the crypto map to the interface. Router(config)#interface serial0/0/0 Router(config-if)#crypto map map_name show crypto map derpy: http://th03.deviantart.net/fs71/PRE/f/2012/302/6/1/derpy_hooves_by_freak0uo-d5jedxp.png twilight: http://fc03.deviantart.net/fs70/i/2012/226/e/5/twilight_sparkle_vector_by_ikillyou121-d56s0vc.png
Views: 12418 Derpy Networking
How VPNs use tunneling and encryption
 
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How do VPNs protect your internet privacy? With tunneling and encryption! Watch the video to learn what that means. If you’d like to get an ExpressVPN subscription, visit the link for pricing: https://www.expressvpn.com/order?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=video&utm_campaign=tunneling_encryption_video&utm_content=video_description ExpressVPN takes encryption very seriously, using AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) with 256-bit keys — also known as AES-256. It's the same encryption standard adopted by the U.S. government and used by security experts worldwide to protect classified information. For more on tunneling and encryption from ExpressVPN, check out: https://www.expressvpn.com/what-is-vpn/vpn-encryption?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=video&utm_campaign=tunneling_encryption_video&utm_content=video_description ExpressVPN is a virtual private network service that allows you to amplify the entire internet. Get around censorship, secure your internet connection, and browse anonymously. An ExpressVPN subscription gets you access to 140+ server locations in more than 90 countries. And with apps for all your devices, you can take ExpressVPN with you wherever you go!
Views: 82317 ExpressVPN
Ever wonder how Bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) actually work?
 
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Bitcoin explained from the viewpoint of inventing your own cryptocurrency. Videos like these made possible by patreon: https://patreon.com/3blue1brown Protocol Labs: https://protocol.ai/ Interested in contributing? https://protocol.ai/join/ Special thanks to the following patrons: http://3b1b.co/btc-thanks Some people have asked if this channel accepts contributions in cryptocurrency form as an alternative to Patreon. As you might guess, the answer is yes :). Here are the relevant addresses: ETH: 0x88Fd7a2e9e0E616a5610B8BE5d5090DC6Bd55c25 BTC: 1DV4dhXEVhGELmDnRppADyMcyZgGHnCNJ BCH: qrr82t07zzq5uqgek422s8wwf953jj25c53lqctlnw LTC: LNPY2HEWv8igGckwKrYPbh9yD28XH3sm32 Supplement video: https://youtu.be/S9JGmA5_unY Music by Vincent Rubinetti: https://soundcloud.com/vincerubinetti/heartbeat Here are a few other resources I'd recommend: Original Bitcoin paper: https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf Block explorer: https://blockexplorer.com/ Blog post by Michael Nielsen: https://goo.gl/BW1RV3 (This is particularly good for understanding the details of what transactions look like, which is something this video did not cover) Video by CuriousInventor: https://youtu.be/Lx9zgZCMqXE Video by Anders Brownworth: https://youtu.be/_160oMzblY8 Ethereum white paper: https://goo.gl/XXZddT Music by Vince Rubinetti: https://vincerubinetti.bandcamp.com/album/the-music-of-3blue1brown ------------------ 3blue1brown is a channel about animating math, in all senses of the word animate. And you know the drill with YouTube, if you want to stay posted on new videos, subscribe, and click the bell to receive notifications (if you're into that). If you are new to this channel and want to see more, a good place to start is this playlist: http://3b1b.co/recommended Various social media stuffs: Website: https://www.3blue1brown.com Twitter: https://twitter.com/3Blue1Brown Patreon: https://patreon.com/3blue1brown Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/3blue1brown Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/3Blue1Brown
Views: 2167839 3Blue1Brown
Comparison of Hashing vs Encryption in MS SQL Server
 
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A video follow up to the blog http://enabledbusinesssolutions.com/blog/performance-comparison-between-plain-text-hashing-and-cell-level-encryption/ here I compare where hashing makes more sense than encryption and some pitfalls on using each of them.
Views: 2291 Jayanth Kurup
Famous UNCRACKED Codes That STILL Exist!
 
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Check out these famous uncracked codes that still exist! From secret riddles to unsolved mysteries, this top 10 list contains cryptography that's still unexplained today! Subscribe For New Videos! http://goo.gl/UIzLeB Watch our "Most CRAZY Things Ancient Egyptians Did!" video here: https://youtu.be/T0zERiMJFQo Watch our "Most CRAZY Things Ancient Greeks Did!" video here: https://youtu.be/-JkhVvn_dow Watch our "REAL Evidence That Aliens EXIST!" video here: https://youtu.be/dtwJT2eilx0 10. Chinese Gold Bar Cipher In 1933, General Wang in Shanghai, China, allegedly received seven gold bars. These gold bars appear to represent metal certificates related to a bank deposit with a U.S. Bank. The gold bars themselves have pictures, Chinese writing, some form of script writing, and cryptograms in Latin letters. Not surprisingly, experts debate concerning the validity of the claim for the deposit. It may help to resolve the dispute if someone can decipher the cryptograms on the bars. Someone translated the Chinese writing, which discusses a transaction in excess of $300,000,000. It also refers to these gold bars, which weigh a total of 1.8 kilograms. The rest remains a mystery. 9. D’agapeyeff Cipher The D’Agapeyeff cipher is an as-yet unbroken cipher that appears in the first edition of Codes and Ciphers, an elementary book on cryptography published by the Russian-born English cartographer Alexander D’Agapeyeff in 1939. Offered as a “challenge cipher” at the end of the book, it was not included in later editions. D’Agapeyeff supposedly admitted later to having forgotten how he had encrypted it. Some argue that the failure of all attempts at decryption is due to D’Agapeyeff incorrectly encrypting the original text. However, it has also been argued that the cipher may still be successfully attacked using computational methods such as genetic algorithms. Whatever those are. 8. The Beale Ciphers If this next one isn’t a hoax then the person who solves it could become very, very rich. This question of authenticity has bothered cryptoanalysts ever since these ciphers first appeared in an 1885 pamphlet called The Beale Papers, which recounts a fantastic story of buried treasure. According to the pamphlet, a man named Thomas Jefferson Beale, a man no one has proven even existed, discovered gold during an 1816 expedition into the American West. The treasure, as the story goes, was then transported to Bedford County, Virginia, and buried. The gold's secret location was allegedly provided by three cryptograms, of which one was already cracked. Unfortunately, the cracked code only detailed the type of treasure there and not a specific location. To find out anything more specific would involve cracking the two other ciphers. The problem is that figuring it out requires comparing them to unknown historical texts. The decrypted cipher, for example, used the Declaration of Independence. The first number, 115, corresponds with the first letter of the 115th word in the Declaration: "instituted." That means 115 stands for "I." So what are the translation texts for the other two ciphers? No one knows, and they may very well not exist at all. There are also questions over whether the other ciphers may just be unintelligible, as if the whole thing was made up by the pamphlet's author decades after the gold was supposed to have been discovered. 7. Dorabella In 1897, a 40-year-old composer named Edward Elgar sent an encrypted letter to 23-year-old Dora Penny, the stepdaughter of one of his friends. Why he sent it is part of the mystery and can only be answered if anyone ever cracks the code. To figure it out would involve deciphering 87 characters all made of strings of semi-circles oriented in different directions. Attempts at translating the cipher yielded a message just short of gibberish. Experts say that shorter ciphers are always harder to solve. Another theory has it that the code is an example of a distinct private language shared only between Penny and Elgar. If that's the case, then solving it may be simply impossible, since no one but them would understand the references. In 2016, a police officer in Cleveland believes he’s cracked at least part of the code, revealing a line of melody. Inspector Mark Pitt read 100 books on the Dorabella Cipher; he hopes to write one on his discoveries. Whether or not that’s really the meaning, though, remains to be seen. Origins Explained is the place to be to find all the answers to your questions, from mysterious events and unsolved mysteries to everything there is to know about the world and its amazing animals!
Views: 1022409 Origins Explained
R1. Matrix Multiplication and the Master Theorem
 
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MIT 6.046J Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Spring 2015 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-046JS15 Instructor: Ling Ren In this recitation, problems related to matrix multiplication and weighted interval scheduling are discussed. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 21036 MIT OpenCourseWare
10. Open Addressing, Cryptographic Hashing
 
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MIT 6.006 Introduction to Algorithms, Fall 2011 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-006F11 Instructor: Srini Devadas License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 75179 MIT OpenCourseWare
Hill Climbing Algorithm | Artificial Intelligence | (Eng-Hindi) | #13
 
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hill climbing search algorithm 1 hill climbing algorithm evaluate initial state, if its goal state quit, otherwise make current state as initial state 2 select a operator that could generate a new state 3 evaluate new state if closer to goal make it current state if not better ignore this state 4 if current goal state than quit otherwise repeat. Follow us on : Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/wellacademy/ Instagram : https://instagram.com/well_academy Twitter : https://twitter.com/well_academy Tags : hill climbing search algorithm,hill climbing in ai,hill climbing in artificial intelligence,hill climbing algoritm,artificial intelligence hill climbing,ai hill climbing search algorithm,what is hill climbing search algorithm ?,explanantion of hill climbing search algorithm,hill climbing explanation,hill climbing working,hill climbing serach algorithm notes,artificial,intelligence,ai,algorithm,well academy
Views: 169027 Well Academy
7. Counting Sort, Radix Sort, Lower Bounds for Sorting
 
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MIT 6.006 Introduction to Algorithms, Fall 2011 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-006F11 Instructor: Erik Demaine License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 187388 MIT OpenCourseWare
What Is Secure Hash Algorithm?
 
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Sha 1 is a revision published in 1994; It also described ansi the cryptographic hash algorithm family of. Wikipedia wiki secure_hash_algorithms url? Q webcache. Government standards agency national institute of and technology ''6 jun 2016the sha 1 hash encryption algorithm specifies a secure algorithm, which can be used to generate condensed representation message called algorithms are fundament many cryptographic applications. A hash function is a mathematical that converts secure hashing algorithm 1, or sha was developed in 1993 by the u. Although widely associated with digital signature technology, the hash algorithm has a secure (sha), developed by nist, along nsa, for use standard (dss) is specified within 23 feb 2017 google's vast cloud computing infrastructure was harnessed to demonstrate that it possible crack 1 abstract purpose of this document make sha (secure 1) conveniently available internet community 30 oct 2015 (short algorithm) one several cryptographic functions. What is sha 1? Lifewire. Federal information processing standard (fips), including sha 1 a 160 bit hash function which resembles the earlier md5 algorithm in cryptography, (secure 1) is cryptographic designed by united states national security agency and u. The cryptographic hash algorithm family nist computer security. Secure hash standard and ongoing competition for newSha 1 wikipediasha wikipediasecure hashing algorithm slidesharesha what is secure l (sha 1)? Computer notes. Secure hash algorithms wikipedia en. Googleusercontent search. Brilliant math & science wikisha 1 tutorial, how sha works, fips 180,secure hash algorithm (sha 224, 256, 384, 512) encryption algorithmsha1 version. The secure hash algorithms are a family of cryptographic functions published by the national institute standards and technology (nist) as u. Sha 1 is most often used to verify that a file has been (sha) one way hash function developped by nist and defined in standard fips 180. Federal information processing standard published by the united states nist. Sha l the next secure hash algorithm, sha 2, involves a set of two functions with 256 bit and 512 technologies, respectively. Sha 1 produces a 160 bit (20 byte) hash value known as message digest 27 oct 2015 secure alogrithmn sha & 2 and comparison between them other sha's 16 dec 2012 hashing algorithmsecure hashingalgorithmby ruth betcherpurpose authentication not encryptionauthentication algorithmpurpose encryption. Secure hash algorithm encyclopedia the free dictionary. Sha 1 wikipediasha wikipediasecure hashing algorithm slidesharesha what is secure hash l (sha 1)? Computer notes. Authentication requirements masquerade insertion of message security hash algorithm (sha) was developed in 1993 by the national institute standards and technology (nist) agency (nsa). What is a secure hash algorithm (sha)? Definition from techopediasecure hashing algorithms. There is also a top level secure hash functions are extremely useful and appear in almost all information security applications. Researchers crack the secure hash algorithm 1 cryptographic rfc 3174 us (sha1 ietf tools.
Views: 195 Til Til
Markov Chain Compression (Ep 3, Compressor Head)
 
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Markov Chains Compression sits at the cutting edge of compression algorithms. These algorithms take an Artificial Intelligence approach to compression by allowing the encoder and decoder to 'predict' what data is coming next. In this episode Colt McAnlis talks about how these magical algorithms compress data, and why some think that they are the future of compression. Songs: Grooviges: Geemee - The First by Geemee http://geemee.bandcamp.com/track/electroswing-revival
Views: 29151 Google Developers
Difference between symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography in bangla || নেটওয়ার্ক সিকিউরিটি
 
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Title: Difference between symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography in bangla || symmetric and asymmetric key encryption in bangla In this video symmetric and asymmetric key encryption is clearly described. The language used in this video is bangla but you'll also understand if you do not understand bangla. If you have any query please put comment. facebook links : https://www.facebook.com/jmshejan https://www.facebook.com/dsteaching/ Please subscribe my channel
Views: 833 JM Shejan
Secure Hash Algorithm Explained (SHA)
 
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In this video, you will see Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) explained simply for beginners! Understanding the concept of a Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) is crucial in order to understand blockchain, bitcoin, and other cryptocurrencies. The term "hashing" is thrown around everywhere, and I want to make it super clear what exactly this term means! Cited: Graphic from BlockGeeks, credit to them for that slide! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pick up a Ledger Nano S Here: https://www.ledgerwallet.com/r/b852?path=/products/ledger-nano-s&tracker=MY_TRACKER ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- If you want to get in the cryptocurrency game, sign up for Coinbase with my referral link: https://www.coinbase.com/join/590795469dcf5f0906c65a13 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Also, sign up for Binance with my referral link here: https://www.binance.com/?ref=23509073 ☮ Thank you for watching and joining the movement! I post weekly content about blockchain, cryptocurrency and more, including cryptocurrency investment tips, product reviews, and informative lessons, so please consider subscribing to get updated on the latest content! ☮ **-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DISCLAIMER: The information in this video is an opinion and is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to be investment advice, nor does it represent any entity's opinion but my own. Seek a duly licensed professional for investment advice. I am not guaranteeing you gains on your investment and this is just my own personal approach that I’ve had success with in investing in cryptocurrency. What I can guarantee, is that by using the above questions as your guide, make the most educated decisions possible while investing in cryptocurrency! Invest smart, ladies and gentlemen! This video and description may contain affiliate links, which means that if you click on one of the product links, I’ll receive a small commission. Most often, I include links to products when I do product reviews, but I will never push a product I do not use myself and totally believe in! The commission I receive for clicks is directly reinvested into the creation of great content on this channel, and I thank you for your support. I am @hashoshi4, engage with me on social media :) Twitter: http://bit.ly/2EDnBjp Facebook: http://bit.ly/2CvViW8 Instagram: http://bit.ly/2ECkecO *--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------* I am Forrest Colyer, and I have studied blockchain and cryptocurrency obsessively over the last 7 years and worked as a blockchain developer for the past few years. It has been a wild ride and I'm excited about what the future holds! On this channel, I strive to share my experience with you in the form of blockchain tutorials, lessons, and stories as well as cryptocurrency news and investment hacks/tips. Thank you for watching and supporting me; Let's Hash It Out!
Views: 184 Hashoshi
What is CRYPTOGRAPHIC ACCELERATOR? What does CRYPTOGRAPHIC ACCELERATOR mean?
 
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What is CRYPTOGRAPHIC ACCELERATOR? What does CRYPTOGRAPHIC ACCELERATOR mean? CRYPTOGRAPHIC ACCELERATOR meaning - CRYPTOGRAPHIC ACCELERATOR definition - CRYPTOGRAPHIC ACCELERATOR explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. In computing, a cryptographic accelerator is a co-processor designed specifically to perform computationally intensive cryptographic operations, doing so far more efficiently than the general-purpose CPU. Because many servers' system load consists mostly of cryptographic operations, this can greatly increase performance. Intel's AES-NI is by far the most common cryptographic accelerator in commodity hardware. VIA PadLock is another recent example. Several operating systems provide some support for cryptographic hardware. The BSD family of systems has the OpenBSD Cryptographic Framework (OCF), Linux systems have the Crypto API, Solaris OS has the Solaris Cryptographic Framework (SCF) and Microsoft Windows has the Microsoft CryptoAPI. Some cryptographic accelerators offer new machine instructions and can therefore be used directly by programs. Libraries such as OpenSSL and LibreSSL support some such cryptographic accelerators. Almost all Unix-like operating systems use OpenSSL or the fork LibreSSL as their cryptography library. These libraries use cryptographic accelerators such as AES-NI if available.
Views: 171 The Audiopedia
Symmetric encryption
 
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Symmetric encryptionSymmetric encryption algorithms are based on one and the same key used by a sender and a recipient. The information exchange process includes three stages: - a sender sends a key to a recipient; - using this key, the sender encrypts the message and forwards it to the recipient; - the recipient receives the message and decrypts it.A number of factors account for the security level provided by conventional techniques: - Firstly, the encryption algorithm should be reliable enough so that the encrypted message could not be decrypted without the key; - Secondly, the security of the transmitted message should depend on the key only rather than on the algorithm secrecy; - And thirdly, the algorithm should prevent from learning the key even if you know a lot of encrypted/unencrypted pairs.For example, the well-known Caesar cipher is quite easy to decipher, even if you don't know the key. Let me demonstrate you how: - We write a decrypted text; - Then we write the decrypted alphabet under the text; - Then we can read the text going from line to line.However, unlike Caesar cipher, if, instead of a constant shift, we use a variable shift which also changes from message to message, we will get rather a reliable encryption system.This method of encryption is called Vigenère cipher. The shift value is defined by a key word which is usually placed in the beginning of a message. The shift is determined by comparing the key word with the transmitted word. For instance, our key word is LASER. The transmitted word will be as follows:In this event the key will be as follows:Symmetric encryption offers such advantages as high data transmission rate, simple implementation, quite a small key length, and sufficient reliability.Symmetric encryption has one substantial shortcoming. It is useless for authentication as the key is known to both parties.
Views: 1161 ChipDipvideo
Secure Hash Algorithm
 
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This video is part of the Udacity course "Intro to Information Security". Watch the full course at https://www.udacity.com/course/ud459
Views: 24241 Udacity
Quantum Computers Explained – Limits of Human Technology
 
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Where are the limits of human technology? And can we somehow avoid them? This is where quantum computers become very interesting. Check out THE NOVA PROJECT to learn more about dark energy: www.nova.org.au Support us on Patreon so we can make more stuff: https://www.patreon.com/Kurzgesagt?ty=h Get the music of the video here: https://soundcloud.com/epicmountain/quantum-computers https://epicmountainmusic.bandcamp.com/track/quantum-computers http://epic-mountain.com Wakelet: https://wakelet.com/wake/42ji9UMJzN?v=st Or follow us on social media or reddit: http://kurzgesagt.org https://www.reddit.com/r/kurzgesagt https://www.facebook.com/Kurzgesagt https://twitter.com/Kurz_Gesagt THANKS A LOT TO OUR LOVELY PATRONS FOR SUPPORTING US: Tamago231, H.H. Lewis, Kirin Tantinon, David, Max Lesterhuis, Marek Belski, Gisle, Colin Millions, Gregory Wolfe II, Lenoir Preminger, Abel X, Matt Knights, Amjad Al Taleb, Ian Bruce, Kris Wolfgramm, 麒麟 于, Christopher Shaw, 靖羊, Tomas Grolmus, Essena O’Neill, Kyle Messner, Pedro Devoto, Mark Radford, Ann-Marie Denham, Davide Pluda, Rik Vermeer, Justin Ritchie, Nicole White, Whireds, Claus Vallø, Jason Talley, Andrew Wu, Christian Dechery, Michael Howell, Michal Hanus, Cavit, Amary Wenger, JDKBot, Jason Eads, FreedomEagleAmerica, Roberto Maddaloni, TiagoF11, Harsha CS, Abhimanyu Yadav, Tracy Tobkin, Mike Fuchs, Elizabeth Mart, Jacob Wenger, Jeff Udall, Ricardo Affonso, Mauro Boffardi, Audrin Navarro, Troy Ross, Keith Tims, Santiago Perez, James, Jack Devlin, Chris Peters, Kenny Martin, Frederick Pickering, Lena Savelyeva, Ian Seale, Charles Ju, Brett Haugen, David Ramsey, Benjamin Dittes, Michelle Schoen, Albert Harguindey Sanchez, Michael King, Alex Kyriacou Alla Khvatova Thomas Rowan, Siim Sillamaa, David Bennell, Janzen,Bryn Farnsworth, Adam Recvlohe, Manuel Arredondo, Fred McIntyre, Maldock Manrique, Дмитрий, Ishita Bisht, Jake Ludwig, Zach Seggie, Casey Sloan, Myndert Papenhuyzen, rheingold3, AncientCulture, Orion Mondragon, Jan, Michael Kuperman, Alexander Argyropoulos Quantum Computers Explained – Limits of Human Technology Help us caption & translate this video! http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCsXVk37bltHxD1rDPwtNM8Q&tab=2
6 Types of Classification Algorithms
 
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Here are some of the most commonly used classification algorithms -- Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes, Stochastic Gradient Descent, K-Nearest Neighbours, Decision Tree, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine. https://analyticsindiamag.com/7-types-classification-algorithms/ -------------------------------------------------- Get in touch with us: Website: www.analyticsindiamag.com Contact: [email protected] Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/AnalyticsIndiaMagazine/ Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/analyticsindiam Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/company-beta/10283931/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/analyticsindiamagazine/
How Machines Learn
 
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How do all the algorithms around us learn to do their jobs? Bot Wallpapers on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/posts/15959388 Discuss this video: https://www.reddit.com/r/CGPGrey/comments/7klmd3/how_do_machines_learn/ Footnote: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wvWpdrfoEv0 Podcasts: https://www.youtube.com/user/HelloInternetPodcast https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCqoy014xOu7ICwgLWHd9BzQ Thank you to my supporters on Patreon: James Bissonette, James Gill, Cas Eliëns, Jeremy Banks, Thomas J Miller Jr MD, Jaclyn Cauley, David F Watson, Jay Edwards, Tianyu Ge, Michael Cao, Caron Hideg, Andrea Di Biagio, Andrey Chursin, Christopher Anthony, Richard Comish, Stephen W. Carson, JoJo Chehebar, Mark Govea, John Buchan, Donal Botkin, Bob Kunz https://www.patreon.com/cgpgrey How neural networks really work with the real linear algebra: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aircAruvnKk Music by: http://www.davidreesmusic.com
Views: 2831073 CGP Grey
How SSH Works
 
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A whiteboarding animation about secure shell protocol.
Views: 222160 Karol Cholewa
Ethereum Vs. Bitcoin: What Sets Them Apart? | CNBC
 
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Cryptocurrency Ether could potentially prove more lucrative than Bitcoin. It's been flying in Bitcoin's shadow, but investors are taking notice of its powerful financial technology. » Subscribe to CNBC: http://cnb.cx/SubscribeCNBC About CNBC: From 'Wall Street' to 'Main Street' to award winning original documentaries and Reality TV series, CNBC has you covered. Experience special sneak peeks of your favorite shows, exclusive video and more. Connect with CNBC News Online Get the latest news: http://www.cnbc.com/ Find CNBC News on Facebook: http://cnb.cx/LikeCNBC Follow CNBC News on Twitter: http://cnb.cx/FollowCNBC Follow CNBC News on Google+: http://cnb.cx/PlusCNBC Follow CNBC News on Instagram: http://cnb.cx/InstagramCNBC Ethereum Vs. Bitcoin: What Sets Them Apart? | CNBC
Views: 746128 CNBC
Memory Encryption Presentation
 
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Summary of "Memory Encryption: A Survey of Existing Techniques by Michael Henson and Stephen Taylor (Dartmouth College, 2014) for ECE289
Views: 103 Andrew Byrne
[CB16] WireGuard: Next Generation Abuse-Resistant Kernel Network Tunnelby Jason Donenfeld
 
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The state of VPN protocols is not pretty, with popular options, such as IPsec and OpenVPN, being overwhelmingly complex, with large attack surfaces, using mostly cryptographic designs from the 90s. WireGuard presents a new abuse-resistant and high-performance alternative based on modern cryptography, with a focus on implementation and usability simplicity. It uses a 1-RTT handshake, based on NoiseIK, to provide perfect forward secrecy, identity hiding, and resistance to key-compromise impersonation attacks, among other important security properties, as well as high performance transport using ChaCha20Poly1305. A novel IP-binding cookie MAC mechanism is used to prevent against several forms of common denial-of-service attacks, both against the client and server, improving greatly on those of DTLS and IKEv2. Key distribution is handled out-of-band with extremely short Curve25519 points, which can be passed around in the likes of OpenSSH. Discarding the academic layering perfection of IPsec, WireGuard introduces the idea of a "cryptokey routing table", alongside an extremely simple and fully defined timer-state mechanism, to allow for easy and minimal configuration; WireGuard is actually securely deployable in practical settings. In order to rival the performance of IPsec, WireGuard is implemented inside the Linux kernel, but unlike IPsec, it is implemented in less than 4,000 lines of code, making the implementation manageably auditable. The talk will examine both the cryptography and kernel implementation particulars of WireGuard and explore an offensive attack perspective on network tunnels. - Jason Donenfeld Jason Donenfeld is an independent security researcher and software developer, with a broad background of experience, well-known in both the security community and the open source world, and has pioneered several exploitation techniques. He has worked with many severe vulnerabilities in widespread software projects, including working on 0-day vulnerabilities in the Linux kernel, as well as extensive hardware reverse engineering. His security work spans advanced mathematical and geometric algorithms, cryptography, and remote exploitation. Jason founded Edge Security (www.edgesecurity.com), a highly capable security consulting firm, with expertise in vulnerability discovery, security assessments, reverse engineering, hardened development, and physical security. http://codeblue.jp/2016/en/contents/speakers.html#speaker-donenfeld
Views: 3018 CODE BLUE Conference
IOHK | Developing a secure proof of stake algorithm
 
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Prof Aggelos Kiayias is the Chair in Cyber Security and Privacy at the University of Edinburgh. His research interests are in computer security, information security, applied cryptography and foundations of cryptography with a particular emphasis in blockchain technologies and distributed systems, e-voting and secure multiparty protocols as well as privacy and identity management. https://iohk.io/team/aggelos-kiayias/ Developing a secure proof of stake algorithm is one of the big challenges in cryptocurrency, and a proposed solution to this problem won the attention of the academic community. Several hundred cryptographers from around the world arrived at the University of California Santa Barbara on Sunday for the flagship annual event of their field, Crypto 2017. Over several days, they present cutting edge research for the scrutiny of their peers, while in the evenings they continue discussions with friends and colleagues over dinner on the university campus, with the inspiring backdrop of the Santa Ynez mountains meeting the Pacific ocean behind them. https://iohk.io/press/ Ouroboros, developed by a team led by IOHK chief scientist Aggelos Kiayias, made it through a tough admission process for the prestigious conference. This year, 311 papers were submitted and of those 72 were accepted. Only three papers at the conference were on the subject of blockchain. All three papers were supported by IOHK funding. Speaking after his presentation, Professor Kiayias said: “We’re very happy that we had the opportunity to present Ouroboros at the conference. The protocol and especially its security analysis were very well received by fellow cryptographers.” “Our next steps will be to focus on the next version of the protocol, Ouroboros Praos which improves even further the security and performance characteristics of the protocol.” The Ouroboros protocol stands out as the first proof of stake algorithm that is provably secure, meaning that it offers security guarantees that are mathematically proven. This is essential for a protocol that is intended to be used in cryptocurrency, an infrastructure that must be relied on to carry billions of dollars worth of value. In addition to security, if blockchains are going to become infrastructure for new financial systems they must be able to comfortably handle millions of users. The key to scaling up is proof of stake, a far more energy efficient and cost effective algorithm, and as such this research represents a significant step forward in cryptography. Ouroboros also has the distinction of being implemented – the protocol will be an integral part of Cardano, a blockchain system currently in development. https://iohk.io/research/papers/#XJ6MHFXX https://iohk.io/projects/cardano/ There were two other papers presented at the bitcoin session on Monday. The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty, was produced by a team of three researchers and included Prof Kiayias. It is a continuation of previous research into Bitcoin, which was itself the first work to prove security properties of its blockchain. A third paper on the subject of bitcoin was presented, Bitcoin as a Transaction Ledger: A Composable Treatment. Other notable talks at the conference included a presentation by John Martinis, an expert on quantum computing and former physics professor at the University of California Santa Barbara, who is now working at Google to build a quantum computer. Leading cryptographers at the conference included Whitfield Diffie, pioneer of the public key cryptography that made Bitcoin possible, and Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman, who came up with the RSA public-key cryptosystem that is widely used for secure data transmission. https://www.forbes.com/sites/amycastor/2017/08/23/at-crypto-2017-blockchain-presentations-focus-on-proofs-not-concepts/#6e558d1a7b70 https://iohk.io/team/aggelos-kiayias/ https://iohk.io/team/bernardo-david/ https://iohk.io/team/peter-gazi/ -- Input Output See more at: https://iohk.io Get our latest news updates: https://iohk.io/blog/ Meet the team: https://iohk.io/team/ Learn about our projects: https://iohk.io/projects/cardano/ Read our papers: http://iohk.link/paper-ouroboros Visit our library: https://iohk.io/research/library/ In the press: https://iohk.io/press/ Work with us: https://iohk.io/careers/ See more on Cardano: https://iohk.io/projects/cardano/ --
Views: 1319 IOHK
How SSL works tutorial - with HTTPS example
 
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How SSL works by leadingcoder. This is a full tutorial how to setup SSL that requires client certificate for reference: http://www.windowsecurity.com/articles/Client-Certificate-Authentication-IIS6.html .
Views: 1296932 tubewar
23. Cache-Oblivious Algorithms: Medians & Matrices
 
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MIT 6.046J Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Spring 2015 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-046JS15 Instructor: Erik Demaine In this lecture, Professor Demaine introduces cache-oblivious algorithms. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 7579 MIT OpenCourseWare
What is DETERMINISTIC ALGORITHM? What does DETERMINISTIC ALGORITHM mean?
 
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What is DETERMINISTIC ALGORITHM? What does DETERMINISTIC ALGORITHM mean? DETERMINISTIC ALGORITHM meaning - DETERMINISTIC ALGORITHM definition - DETERMINISTIC ALGORITHM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ In computer science, a deterministic algorithm is an algorithm which, given a particular input, will always produce the same output, with the underlying machine always passing through the same sequence of states. Deterministic algorithms are by far the most studied and familiar kind of algorithm, as well as one of the most practical, since they can be run on real machines efficiently. Formally, a deterministic algorithm computes a mathematical function; a function has a unique value for any input in its domain, and the algorithm is a process that produces this particular value as output. Deterministic algorithms can be defined in terms of a state machine: a state describes what a machine is doing at a particular instant in time. State machines pass in a discrete manner from one state to another. Just after we enter the input, the machine is in its initial state or start state. If the machine is deterministic, this means that from this point onwards, its current state determines what its next state will be; its course through the set of states is predetermined. Note that a machine can be deterministic and still never stop or finish, and therefore fail to deliver a result. Examples of particular abstract machines which are deterministic include the deterministic Turing machine and deterministic finite automaton. A variety of factors can cause an algorithm to behave in a way which is not deterministic, or non-deterministic: If it uses external state other than the input, such as user input, a global variable, a hardware timer value, a random value, or stored disk data. If it operates in a way that is timing-sensitive, for example if it has multiple processors writing to the same data at the same time. In this case, the precise order in which each processor writes its data will affect the result. If a hardware error causes its state to change in an unexpected way. Although real programs are rarely purely deterministic, it is easier for humans as well as other programs to reason about programs that are. For this reason, most programming languages and especially functional programming languages make an effort to prevent the above events from happening except under controlled conditions. The prevalence of multi-core processors has resulted in a surge of interest in determinism in parallel programming and challenges of non-determinism have been well documented. A number of tools to help deal with the challenges have been proposed to deal with deadlocks and race conditions. It is advantageous, in some cases, for a program to exhibit nondeterministic behavior. The behavior of a card shuffling program used in a game of blackjack, for example, should not be predictable by players — even if the source code of the program is visible. The use of a pseudorandom number generator is often not sufficient to ensure that players are unable to predict the outcome of a shuffle. A clever gambler might guess precisely the numbers the generator will choose and so determine the entire contents of the deck ahead of time, allowing him to cheat; for example, the Software Security Group at Reliable Software Technologies was able to do this for an implementation of Texas Hold 'em Poker that is distributed by ASF Software, Inc, allowing them to consistently predict the outcome of hands ahead of time. These problems can be avoided, in part, through the use of a cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator, but it is still necessary for an unpredictable random seed to be used to initialize the generator. For this purpose a source of nondeterminism is required, such as that provided by a hardware random number generator. Note that a negative answer to the P=NP problem would not imply that programs with nondeterministic output are theoretically more powerful than those with deterministic output. The complexity class NP (complexity) can be defined without any reference to nondeterminism using the verifier-based definition.
Views: 1211 The Audiopedia
The Power of Theory in the Practice of Hashing with Focus on Similarity Estimation
 
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A Google TechTalk, 3/8/18, presented by Mikkel Thorup (University of Copenhagen) Talks from visiting speakers on Algorithms, Theory, and Optimization
Views: 1136 GoogleTechTalks
Cryptographic Hash Functions
 
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Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 12039 nptelhrd
Checksum
 
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Checksum is a method of checking for errors in a communications system. I'm Mr. Woo and my channel is all about learning - I love doing it, and I love helping others to do it too. I guess that's why I became a teacher! I hope you get something out of these videos - I upload almost every weekday, so subscribe to find out when there's something new! For categorised playlists: http://www.misterwootube.com Main channel: http://youtube.com/misterwootube Discussion: http://facebook.com/misterwootube Worksheets and other resources: http://woo.jamesruse.nsw.edu.au
Views: 146453 Eddie Woo