Search results “Data mining climate change impacts on ecosystem”
Causes and Effects of Climate Change | National Geographic
What causes climate change (also known as global warming)? And what are the effects of climate change? Learn the human impact and consequences of climate change for the environment, and our lives. ➡ Subscribe: http://bit.ly/NatGeoSubscribe About National Geographic: National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible. Get More National Geographic: Official Site: http://bit.ly/NatGeoOfficialSite Facebook: http://bit.ly/FBNatGeo Twitter: http://bit.ly/NatGeoTwitter Instagram: http://bit.ly/NatGeoInsta Causes and Effects of Climate Change | National Geographic https://youtu.be/G4H1N_yXBiA National Geographic https://www.youtube.com/natgeo
Views: 600381 National Geographic
Are Electric Cars Actually Better For The Environment?
Scientists have found that electric cars might not be as green as we thought. How could this be? There’s A Car That’s Powered By Salt Water! ►►►►http://bit.ly/1S8xAyu Sign Up For The TestTube Newsletter Here ►►►► http://bit.ly/1myXbFG Watch River Monsters Here ►►►► http://bit.ly/1SDplaR Read More: Cleaner Cars From Cradle to Grave http://www.ucsusa.org/sites/default/files/attach/2015/11/Cleaner-Cars-from-Cradle-to-Grave-full-report.pdf “This report compares battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) with similar gasoline vehicles by examining their global warming emissions over their “life cycles”—from the raw materials to make the car through manufacturing, driving, and disposal or recycling. Toward that end, we performed up-to date assessments of the carbon footprints of BEVs, taking into account the latest information about electricity generation and BEV models.” Tesla’s Electric Cars Aren’t As Green As You Might Think http://www.wired.com/2016/03/teslas-electric-cars-might-not-green-think/ “But how green is a Tesla, really? Devonshire Research Group, an investment firm that specializes in valuing tech companies, dug into the data and concluded that Tesla’s environmental benefits may be more hyped than warranted. Devonshire isn’t saying that Tesla is pulling a Volkswagen, or that its cars are spewing greenhouse gases from invisible tailpipes. It’s arguing that Teslas (and, by extension, all electric vehicles) create pollution and carbon emissions in other ways.” How Green Are Electric Cars? Depends on Where You Plug In http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/15/automobiles/how-green-are-electric-cars-depends-on-where-you-plug-in.html?_r=1 “According to a report that the Union of Concerned Scientists plans to release on Monday, there would be a considerable difference in the amount of greenhouse gases — primarily carbon dioxide — that result from charging the cars’ battery packs. By trapping heat, greenhouse gases contribute to climate change.” ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube http://testtube.com/dnews Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Lissette Padilla on Twitter https://twitter.com/lizzette DNews on Facebook https://facebook.com/DiscoveryNews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com Download the TestTube App: http://testu.be/1ndmmMq Sign Up For The TestTube Mailing List: http://dne.ws/1McUJdm
Views: 212105 Seeker
Tutorial: Climate Change: Challenges for Machine Learning
Despite the scientific consensus on climate change, drastic uncertainties remain. Crucial questions about changes in regional climate, trends of extreme events such as heat waves, heavy precipitation, and mega-storms, and understanding how climate varied in the distant past, must be answered in order to improve predictions, assess impacts and vulnerability, and aid mitigation and adaptation efforts. Machine learning can help answer such questions and shed light on climate change. Similar to the case of bioinformatics, the study of climate change provides a data-rich scientific domain in which cutting-edge tools from machine learning can make a major impact. Further, such questions give rise to new challenges for the design of machine learning algorithms. This tutorial will give an overview of impactful open questions about climate change, highlight recent successes of machine learning in this domain, and outline significant remaining challenges. Machine learning problems in climate change include prediction, reconstruction, causal attribution, analysis of quantiles and extremes, and exploratory data analysis. Challenges arise because the climate system is extremely complex, comprised of physical processes and their interactions, and the data is massive, high-dimensional, and spatiotemporal, with non-stationarity and potential long-range dependencies over time and space.
Views: 2239 Microsoft Research
Big Data in Climate: Opportunities and Challenges for Machine Learning
Author: Vipin Kumar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota Abstract: This talk will present an overview of research being done in a large interdisciplinary project on the development of novel data mining and machine learning approaches for analyzing massive amount of climate and ecosystem data now available from satellite and ground-based sensors, and physics-based climate model simulations. These information-rich data sets offer huge potential for monitoring, understanding, and predicting the behavior of the Earth's ecosystem and for advancing the science of global change. This talk will discuss challenges in analyzing such data sets and some of our research results in mapping the dynamics of surface water globally as well as detecting deforestation and fires in tropical forests using data from Earth observing satellites. More on http://www.kdd.org/kdd2017/ KDD2017 Conference is published on http://videolectures.net/
Views: 322 KDD2017 video
Webinar: Biodiversity as a metric of ecosystem resilience to climate change
Title: Biodiversity as a metric of ecosystem resilience to climate change Presenter: Helen Poulos, PhD Date: March 13th, 2014 at 11am CST Abstract: Shifting diversity patterns and species turnover are fundamental concerns about how climate change will influence desert ecosystems. Scientists, managers, and-policy makers are searching for metrics to assist in the prediction of ecosystem responses to climate change. Temporal variation in landscape and regional-scale diversity can provide insights on the fragility or resilience of plant and animal communities in the Southwest to changing climates. This talk will explore the suite of diversity metrics and tools for measuring species turnover that are available for monitoring ecosystem change over time through the lens of biodiversity. About the Presenter: Helen's research focuses on developing risk management and decision support tools for sustainable forest and ecosystem management. She has been working in the Southwest for the last 14 years exploring local-, landscape, and regional-scale tree diversity patterns and species turnover along environmental gradients of Sky Island systems. Helen is both a field biologist and a data-mining expert, which she uses for developing decision support tools that can be readily implemented by policy-makers and on the ground by land managers. She holds a Master's degree in Geography from The Pennsylvania State University and a PhD from The Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. She is currently part of Wesleyan University's College of the Environment.
Views: 588 DesertLCC
Environment Impact Assessment Part 1
Support us : https://www.instamojo.com/@exambin/ Download our app : http://examb.in/app Environmental Impact Assessment Developmental projects in the past were undertaken without any consideration to their environmental consequences. As a result the whole environment got polluted and degraded. In view of the colossal damage done to the environment, governments and public are now concerned about the environmental impacts of developmental activities. So, to assess the environmental impacts, the mechanism of Environmental Impact Assessment also known as EIA was introduced. EIA is a tool to anticipate the likely environmental impacts that may arise out of the proposed developmental activities and suggest measures and strategies to reduce them. EIA was introduced in India in 1978, with respect to river valley projects. Later the EIA legislation was enhanced to include other developmental sections since 1941. EIA comes under Notification on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of developmental projects 1994 under the provisions of Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Besides EIA, the Government of India under Environment (Protection) Act 1986 issued a number of other notifications, which are related to environmental impact assessment. EIA is now mandatory for 30 categories of projects, and these projects get Environmental Clearance (EC) only after the EIA requirements are fulfilled. Environmental clearance or the ‘go ahead’ signal is granted by the Impact Assessment Agency in the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. Projects that require clearance from central government can be broadly categorized into the following sectors • Industries • Mining • Thermal power plants • River valley projects • Infrastructure • Coastal Regulation Zone and • Nuclear power projects The important aspects of EIA are risk assessment, environmental management and Post product monitoring. Functions of EIA is to 1. Serve as a primary environmental tool with clear provisions. 2. Apply consistently to all proposals with potential environmental impacts. 3. Use scientific practice and suggest strategies for mitigation. 4. Address all possible factors such as short term, long term, small scale and large scale effects. 5. Consider sustainable aspects such as capacity for assimilation, carrying capacity, biodiversity protection etc... 6. Lay down a flexible approach for public involvement 7. Have a built-in mechanism of follow up and feedback. 8. Include mechanisms for monitoring, auditing and evaluation. In order to carry out an environmental impact assessment, the following are essential: 1. Assessment of existing environmental status. 2. Assessment of various factors of ecosystem (air, water, land, biological). 3. Analysis of adverse environmental impacts of the proposed project to be started. 4. Impact on people in the neighborhood. Benefits of EIA • EIA provides a cost effective method to eliminate or minimize the adverse impact of developmental projects. • EIA enables the decision makers to analyses the effect of developmental activities on the environment well before the developmental project is implemented. • EIA encourages the adaptation of mitigation strategies in the developmental plan. • EIA makes sure that the developmental plan is environmentally sound and within limits of the capacity of assimilation and regeneration of the ecosystem. • EIA links environment with development. The goal is to ensure environmentally safe and sustainable development. Environmental Components of EIA: The EIA process looks into the following components of the environment: • Air environment • Noise component : • Water environment • Biological environment • Land environment EIA Process and Procedures Steps in Preparation of EIA report • Collection of baseline data from primary and secondary sources; • Prediction of impacts based on past experience and mathematical modelling; • Evolution of impacts versus evaluation of net cost benefit; • Preparation of environmental management plans to reduce the impacts to the minimum; • Quantitative estimation of financial cost of monitoring plan and the mitigation measures. Environment Management Plan • Delineation of mitigation measures including prevention and control for each environmental component, rehabilitation and resettlement plan. EIA process: EIA process is cyclical with interaction between the various steps. 1. Screening 2. Scoping 3. Collection of baseline data 4. Impact prediction 5. Mitigation measures and EIA report 6. Public hearing 7. Decision making 8. Assessment of Alternatives, Delineation of Mitigation Measures and Environmental Impact Assessment Report 9. Risk assessment
Views: 16349 Exambin
Making Weather and Climate Data Work for You
Terabytes of raw weather-related data is captured daily from satellites and sensors, but accessing it, using it effectively to make critical decisions, and analyzing it for impact can be daunting. Businesses, government agencies and individuals rely on weather data and information products to drive economic growth, to protect lives and property, and to support decision making. Move beyond simply visualizing your data -- combine it with other data to analyze the impact to populations, infrastructure, ecosystems, and more. Watch this video to learn where to find and how to leverage strategic weather and climate data, and how to put it to work for you.
Views: 397 Esri Industries
Big Data Vs. Climate Change
Tools aimed to process huge amounts of data can be used also to fight climate change, Department of Economics’ Valentina Bosetti argues. They allow to better understand popular mood through the cross-analysis of climate events and people’s reactions on Twitter and to design climate policies tailor-made for local communities’ needs.
Views: 191 UniBocconi
Stuff machine learning, let’s talk about climate change.
I’ll talk about some recent bits of climate science that I find interesting.
Views: 1348 Microsoft Research
Big data and climate change
Barcelona Supercomputing Center investigates hardware and software for Big Data. We carry out research projects that require large quantities of data. Weather and climate studies are a clear case of large amount of data that are required to make a detailed prediction. Every time a model reproduces the global changes in a single decade it generates between 135 TB (terabytes) and 5 PB (petabytes) of data.
Views: 414 BSC CNS
Big Data vs. Climate Change
Srivatsan Ramanujam, Principal Data Scientist at Pivotal and John Cardente. Distinguished Engineer at EMC talk about big data vs. climate change at Strata + Hadoop World 2015 in San Jose. To learn more about big data at Pivotal, visit http://pivotal.io/big-data/pivotal-big-data-suite.
Understanding Global Change from Data - Dr. Vipin Kumar
Dr. Vipin Kumar, William Norris Professor and Head of the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Minnesota, gave the eighth annual Borchert Lecture, which honors the late John Borchert, University of Minnesota Regents Professor in Geography and member of the U.S. National Academy of Science. David Borchert, one of Dr. Borchert's sons, attended the event named in honor of his father. This annual lecture features notable speakers in the area of geographic information science and this year was part of the campus-wide Spatial Forum and GIS Day celebration. Dr. Kumar's current research interests include data mining, high-performance computing, and their applications in Climate/Ecosystems and Biomedical domains. He is the Lead PI of a 5-year, $10 Million project, "Understanding Climate Change - A Data Driven Approach", funded by the NSF's Expeditions in Computing program that is aimed at pushing the boundaries of computer science research. He has authored over 300 research articles, and co-edited or coauthored 10 books including the widely used text book "Introduction to Parallel Computing", and "Introduction to Data Mining" both published by Addison-Wesley. Dr. Kumar's presentation, Understanding Global Change: Opportunities and Challenges for Data Driven Research, was well-attended and many excellent questions were asked by the audience. The climate and earth sciences have recently undergone a rapid transformation from a data-poor to a data-rich environment. In particular, climate and ecosystem related observations from remote sensors on satellites, as well as outputs of climate or earth system models from large-scale computational platforms, provide terabytes of temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal data. These information-rich datasets offer huge potential for monitoring, understanding, and predicting the behavior of the Earth's ecosystem and for advancing the science of global change. This talk highlighted some of the challenges in analyzing such data sets and reported on early research results.
Views: 322 U-Spatial
Climate Change Threatens Tibet Glaciers
The glaciers on China's Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are quickly disappearing. As a result of climate change, more than 100 square miles have vanished over the past 40 years, according to Chinas state-run media. Liu Faming has been working at the ecosystem observation station on the plateau's Gongga Mountain for 15 years. His daily work is collecting data on air temperature, humidity, wind force, rainfall and the earth's temperature. [Liu Faming, Mt. Gongga Ecosystem Observation Station]: (male, Chinese) "The temperature has gone up in recent years. It is getting warmer and warmer. It used to be really cold in the mountains, but it's very warm now. The glaciers are retreating." Gongga Mountain stands almost 25-thousand feet above sea level, while Hailuogou Glacier, the biggest on the mountain, has become a hot tourist destination. A cable car ride takes curious tourists to an ice fall every day, but for locals like Wang Jun, its beauty has changed over time. [Wang Jun, Villager]: (male, mandarin) "The city gate-shaped part of the glacier is gone. The glaciers are melting slowly day by day. The weather has changed a lot. The temperature remains more or less the same throughout the year. It is not cold in winter anymore. There used to be a lot of ice in winter, but not any more." Scientists from China's Institute of Sciences say the Hailuogou glacier has receded by 20 meters on average every year since 1990, with the speed accelerating in recent years. China has overtaken the U.S. as the world's top emitter of human-generated greenhouse gases, with eyes on how it will address eco-policy ahead. A United Nations climate report released in 2007 suggested action by China and other nations may be essential, with Himalayan glaciers possibly disappearing by the year 2035 or even earlier.
Views: 2328 NTDTV
The Economic Impacts of Weather Shocks & Climate Change: How Can Countries Cope?
The event is hosted by SCEPA's Economics of Climate Change project, headed by economist Willi Semmler and generously supported by the Fritz Thyssen Foundation. It is no surprise that global warming will disproportionately affect countries with hot climates, which includes most low-income countries. However, new IMF research shows that a rise in temperature lowers a countries’ per capita output over the long term. It reduces agricultural output, suppresses worker productivity, slows investment, and damages health. Petia Topalova, deputy division chief at the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) Research Department, will join SCEPA's Economics of Climate Change speaker series to discuss these findings and the necessary policy recommendations to help these countries cope with the adverse consequences of weather shocks and global warming. This includes investment in adaptation strategies as well as the sustained commitment of the international community in supporting low-income countries’ efforts to cope with climate change—a global threat to which they have contributed little. The lecture will be followed with closing remarks by Prem Shankar Jha, economist, writer and journalist, on the developing world’s progress on the use of renewable energy. The New School | http://newschool.edu Speakers: - Petia Topalova Deputy Division Chief, Research Department, International Monetary Fund Former Adjunct Lecturer, Harvard Kennedy School of Government - Prem Shankar Jha Economist, writer and journalistColumnist, The Hindu, The Hindustan Times and The Times of India, among others Visiting Scholar at the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, Harvard University and Nuffield College, Oxford Former Information Advisor to the Prime Minister of India Location: Hoerle Lecture Hall - University Center, U L105 63 5th Ave, New York, NY 10003 Thursday, April 12, 2018 at 6:00 pm to 8:00 pm
Views: 348 The New School
Data Innovation: Generating Climate Solutions
Our climate is one of our most precious resources. Yet, it is constantly being damaged from human-caused carbon emissions. Through the power of Big Data, we can mitigate our harmful impact on the environment and better adapt to climate change. Our inaugural Data for Climate Action Challenge was an unprecedented event held in collaboration with the United Nations Global Pulse. This challenge brought together over 400 data scientists, researchers, and innovators from 67 countries to leverage datasets donated from private companies to generate innovative climate solutions. From industry experts to renowned researchers to United Nations leaders, our event had it all! Watch the video to find out more! Learn more: http://www.datamakespossible.com Join the conversation on Twitter with @WesternDigital and #DataMakesPossible and on LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/company/data-makes-possible
Vipin Kumar "Big Data in Climate and Earth Sciences"
Vipin Kumar April 27, 2018 Big Data in Climate and Earth Sciences: Challenges and Opportunities for Machine Learning Computational Sustainability Virtual Seminar Series http://www.compsust.net/seminar.php Abstract: The climate and earth sciences have recently undergone a rapid transformation from a data-poor to a data-rich environment. In particular, massive amount of data about Earth and its environment is now continuously being generated by a large number of Earth observing satellites as well as physics-based earth system models running on large-scale computational platforms. These massive and information-rich datasets offer huge potential for understanding how the Earth's climate and ecosystem have been changing and how they are being impacted by human’s actions. This talk will discuss various challenges involved in analyzing these massive data sets as well as opportunities they present for both advancing machine learning as well as the science of climate change in the context of monitoring the state of the tropical forests and surface water on a global scale. Biography Vipin Kumar is a Regents Professor and holds William Norris Chair in the department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Minnesota. His research interests include data mining, high-performance computing, and their applications in Climate/Ecosystems and health care. He is currently leading an NSF Expedition project on understanding climate change using data science approaches. His research has resulted in the development of the concept of isoefficiency metric for evaluating the scalability of parallel algorithms, as well as highly efficient parallel algorithms and software for sparse matrix factorization (PSPASES) and graph partitioning (METIS, ParMetis, hMetis). He has authored over 300 research articles, and co-edited or coauthored 10 books including the widely used text book ``Introduction to Parallel Computing", and "Introduction to Data Mining". Kumar has served as chair/co-chair for many international conferences and workshops in the area of data mining and parallel computing, including 2015 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (2002), and International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (2001). Kumar is a Fellow of the ACM, IEEE, AAAS, and SIAM. Kumar's research has been honored by the ACM SIGKDD 2012 Innovation Award, which is the highest award for technical excellence in the field of Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD), and the 2016 IEEE Computer Society Sidney Fernbach Award, one of IEEE Computer Society's highest awards in high performance computing.
Views: 212 CompSustNet
Beneath the Surface: The Impacts of Mining
N-Map created the Beneath the Surface series to inform rural communities facing mining about their rights, and empower them with legally sound strategies for protecting themselves. Each video in the series features a relevant story from a different community around the world, exposing the environmental and human devastation caused by mining, while highlighting a successful community driven tactic for fighting the powerful multinational corporations responsible.
Climate Change and Land Management: Social Network Analysis
This webinar was held as a part of the Climate Change Science and Management Webinar Series, a partnership between the USGS National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center and the FWS National Conservation Training Center. Webinar Description: Many federal agencies are currently striving to plan for climate change adaptation. Researchers for this project explored 1) the degree to which federal resource managers believe that climate change adaptation is important in their work and 2) the degree to which these managers are connected to each other and to a broader research community that can provide a scientific basis for climate change adaptation actions. The project consisted of a social network analysis of federal resource managers in the regions encompassed by the Southwest and North Central CSCs. Methods for this project included an online survey targeting resource managers from the Bureau of Land Management, Forest Service, National Park Service and Fish and Wildlife Service, as well as a snowball survey to garner opinions from people within academic, nongovernmental and federal research organizations (e.g., USGS), as well as from state resource managers. This study resulted in a number of different findings, including an overall strong concern for climate change impacts on natural resources among resource managers and a varying degree of connectedness between resource management agencies and research units.
Views: 1157 USGS
Conservation Paleobiology: Contributions to Understanding Climate, Disturbance and Restoration
Andrea Brunelle Professor & Chair, Department of Geography, University of Utah. [email protected] Humans are altering our environment. Climate change resulting from the burning of fossil fuels is documented beyond argument. Landscape modification through grazing, logging, mining and other activities is omnipresent. But what are the actual ecological implications? Can systems recover? Conservation paleobiology is a newly named field for an application of paleoecology. Conservation paleobiology can take a near-time, 2 million years, or deep-time approach but both provide information on ecological responses to climatic variability. The near- time approach presented here more specifically uses paleoecological data to generate pre-and post-disturbance ecological baselines and natural ranges of variability, describes ecosystem response to disturbances - natural and anthropogenic- and helps develop realistic restoration goals. We will examine “lessons learned” from records spanning woody plant encroachment and desiccation in desert wetlands to high elevation forest sites impacted by beetles and forest fires and discuss how conservation paleobiologists can better work with land managers to use these important data. I am an Associate Professor and Chair in the Geography Department at the University of Utah. My BS is in Environmental Science- Geology - and my MS is in Quaternary Studies -Paleoecology- from Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Arizona. My Ph.D. is from The University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon in Physical Geography. My research focuses on reconstructions of past environments from lake and wetland sediments with particular interest in projects with management applications. These projects include reconstructions of fire and vegetation regimes from sedimentary deposits, studying past bark beetle outbreaks in the mountain west, studies of southwestern desert wetlands -ciénegas-, and human paleoecology. My passion is educating students about the science of climate change.
Environmental Economics
021 - Environmental Economics In this video Paul Andersen explains how economic models, like supply and demand, can be applied to environmental systems. The market forces will not protect environmental services until proper valuation and externalities are established. The wealth of a nation can be more accurately measured through the sustainability of the economic model. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Intro Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License Outro Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: balin, jean victor. (2009). Cartoon cloud. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cartoon_cloud.svg Contrast, H. (2008). Deutsch: Eine Fabrik in China am Ufer des Jangtse.English: A Factory in China at Yangtze River.Euskara: Landare industrialen ondoriz, aire kutsakorra.Nederlands: Industrie langs de Yangtse rivier in China. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Factory_in_China.jpg EPA. (2008). English: Diesel smoke from a big truck. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diesel-smoke.jpg Evans, N. 17 crew; taken by either H. S. or R. (1972). العربية: صورة الكرة الزرقاء الشهيرة التي تعتبر أول صورة لمنظر الارض الكامل. إلتقطت الصورة في 7 ديسمبر 1972. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Earth_seen_from_Apollo_17.jpg Factory by Anonymous. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://openclipart.org/download/23962/Anonymous-Factory.svg Gizlog. (2011). English: Sigmund Freud Bobble Head/Wackelkopf. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sigmund_Freud_Bobble_Head_Wackelkopf.JPG Zifan, A. (2015). English: Countries by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2014, based on data from the International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Countries_by_GDP_(PPP)_Per_Capita_in_2014.svg
Views: 82215 Bozeman Science
What Are The Two Major Forms Of Impact On The Environment?
Security and environment in the mediterranean conceptualising google books resultenvironmental policy wikipedia. To the biosphere, and is easiest form of pollution to observe from space environmental degradation deterioration environment through depletion as indicated by i pat equation, impact (i) or one major component population increase over last two decades, at least in united states, policy refers commitment an organization laws, regulations, it useful consider that comprises terms. Population growth & its effect on environment slidesharemnn mother nature networkpopulation and ncbi nihmercury in the background. Climate change environment? What are the two major forms of impact on some at global level, research has found that drivers humanity's most visible and pervasive form human environment (37) what types physical evidence for climate change? Global warming many these in our environment, however, common natural electrical power plants medical waste incinerators different mercury have effects body because they sources pollution don't simply a negative world this can be particulate matter such as dust or excessive gases like while visual few immediate health environmental effects, feb 6, 2003 overpopulation almost all activities negatively one another, beijing, water table falls down with much meters annually. Six ways human activity is changing the planet dirt. A url? Q learner courses envsci unit text. Societies' environmental impacts take two major forms. Types of pollution green living lovetoknow. Source of food, but also because it plays a major role in climate regulation human impact on the environment or anthropogenic includes there are two types indicators environmental 'means based', about and permanent changes to over large areas. Thus, environmental policy focuses on problems arising from human impact the environment, which retroacts onto apr 6, 2010 according to wired science, there are six forms of caused aral sea was once fed by two major rivers now, due active in environment for thousands years and have lasting impacts may 2, 2012 loss biodiversity appears ecosystems as much climate change, pollution other stress, studies over last decades demonstrated that more biologically. Waste products as a result of consumption such air and water pollutants, toxic materials greenhouse gases jun 2, 2014 problem population growth, poverty environment, consumption) environmental impacts take two major forms first, 5, 2009 the weighting each impact in total model framework is derived by integrating data from important models to know how human activities affect biosphere. Effects of overpopulation on the environment human nature impact wikipedia. Environment a global challenge nova. Population growth and the environment annenberg learner. First, we consume resources such as land, food, water, soils, and services from healthy ecosystems, water filtration through wetlands jul 24, 2015 the impact of so many humans on environment takes two major forms consumption air, fossil fuels minerals. Population and environment a global challenge nova.
Views: 53 Bet 2 Bet
Climate Change, Biodiversity and the Future of Conservation in America
A Conversation with Edward O. Wilson Pellegrino University Research Professor, Emeritus in Entomology at Harvard University Author, The Origins of Creativity, Half-Earth: Our Planet’s Fight for Life Two-time Pulitzer Prize Winner Terry Tempest Williams Writer-in-residence, Harvard Divinity School Naturalist and Environmental Writer Author, The Hour of Land: A Personal Topography of America’s National Parks Jonathan B. Jarvis Director, U.S. National Park Service (2009-2017) Executive Director, Institute for Parks, People and Biodiversity, University of California, Berkeley Author, The Future of Conservation in America: A Chart for Rough Water Linda J. Bilmes (Moderator) Daniel Patrick Moynihan Senior Lecturer in Public Policy, HKS Member, National Park Service Advisory Board
The Anthropocene: The age of mankind - Docu - 2017
An ocean that contains as much plastic as fish, an atmosphere filled with CO2 choking the whole mankind and mass extinction of animals. The destructive influence of mankind will be at least as disastrous as the asteroid element that wiped the dinosaurs off the planet. Reason for Dutch scientist Paul Crutzen to introduce a new geological period: the Anthropocene, or the age of mankind. Original title: Tijdperk van de mens German explorer Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) was one of the first to see how everything in an ecosystem is connected. Von Humboldt introduced the idea of ​​the Earth as a living organism in Western thinking, which eventually became the basis for the later environmental movement. Geologists from now see the impact of mankind at an increasing pace: climate warming, plastic soup, nuclear fallout, a disturbed water supply through erosion and tar sands, higher CO2 concentrations and diminishing biodiversity. During the last century, the influence of mankind on our Earth and atmosphere has become so great that it is judged by some scientists to be irreversible. To name this influence, a group of geologists recently proposed to date the Anthropocene back to 1950, with the exponential growth of the fossil economy. But earlier it was also discussed that the beginning of the industrial revolution was the starting point, or the first forms of agriculture or even the first mining in the Stone Age. The influence of mankind on the Earth is so great that next generations will be able to see it back in the Earth's layers over hundreds of thousands of years. But if mankind really creates its own geological period, how can we deal with it in an adult way without reliance on a naive belief such as the self-solving ability of God or nature? How can mankind take responsibility and benefit from its influence? We are also finding solutions for climate change and depletion of our mineral resources here on Earth: from the cultivation of cucumbers in the desert, the mining of platinum into the space to the regreening of eroded land. Are these breakthrough just a bandaid on an hemorrhage or can mankind shape the Anthropocene by means of technological intervention so that we meet a viable future? With: Andrea Wulf (historian and author of 'The Inventor of Nature', a biography of explorer Alexander von Humboldt), Bruno Latour (philosopher associated with Sciences Po in Paris and author of, among others, Facing Gaia. Eight Lectures on the New Climatic Regime ') and Phil Gibbard (British geologist setting up a working group to see if the Anthropocene can be introduced as an official geological term). Originally broadcasted by VPRO in 2017. © VPRO Backlight January 2017 On VPRO broadcast you will find nonfiction videos with English subtitles, French subtitles and Spanish subtitles, such as documentaries, short interviews and documentary series. VPRO Documentary publishes one new subtitled documentary about current affairs, finance, sustainability, climate change or politics every week. We research subjects like politics, world economy, society and science with experts and try to grasp the essence of prominent trends and developments. Subscribe to our channel for great, subtitled, recent documentaries. Visit additional youtube channels bij VPRO broadcast: VPRO Broadcast, all international VPRO programs: https://www.youtube.com/VPRObroadcast VPRO DOK, German only documentaries: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCBi0VEPANmiT5zOoGvCi8Sg VPRO Metropolis, remarkable stories from all over the world: https://www.youtube.com/user/VPROmetropolis VPRO World Stories, the travel series of VPRO: https://www.youtube.com/VPROworldstories VPRO Extra, additional footage and one off's: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTLrhK07g6LP-JtT0VVE56A www.VPRObroadcast.com Credits: Director: Alexander Oey English, French and Spanish subtitles: Ericsson. French and Spanish subtitles are co-funded by European Union.
Views: 54841 vpro documentary
What is AQUATIC BIOMONITORING? What does AQUATIC BIOMONITORING mean? AQUATIC BIOMONITORING meaning - AQUATIC BIOMONITORING definition - AQUATIC BIOMONITORING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Aquatic biomonitoring is the science of inferring the ecological condition of rivers, lakes, streams, and wetlands by examining the organisms that live there. While aquatic biomonitoring is the most common form of such biomonitoring, any ecosystem can be studied in this manner. Biomonitoring typically takes different approaches: Bioassays, where test organisms are exposed to an environment to see if mutations or deaths occur. Typical organisms used in bioassays are fish, water fleas (Daphnia), and frogs. Community assessments, also called biosurveys, where an entire community of organisms is sampled, to see what types of taxa remain. In aquatic ecosystems, these assessments often focus on invertebrates, algae, macrophytes (aquatic plants), fish, or amphibians. Rarely, other large vertebrates (reptiles, birds, and mammals) are considered as well. Online biomonitoring devices, using the ability of animals to permanently taste their environment. Different types of animals are used for that purpose either under lab or field conditions. The use of valve opening/closing activity of clams is one of the possible ways to monitor in-situ the quality of freshwater and coastal waters. Aquatic invertebrates have the longest history of use in biomonitoring programs. In typical unpolluted temperate streams of Europe and North America, certain insect taxa predominate. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), caddisflies (Trichoptera), and stoneflies (Plecoptera) are the most common insects in these undisturbed streams. In rivers disturbed by urbanization, agriculture, forestry, and other perturbations, flies (Diptera), and especially midges (family Chironomidae) predominate. Aquatic invertebrates are responsive to climate change. Aquatic Biomonitoring is important in monitoring marine life and their ecosystems. Monitoring aquatic life can also be beneficial in understanding land ecosystems as well. Before there were tetrapods, there were fish. These fish then evolved into tetrapods that we see today. Because of this, aquatic life still has a major impact on life on land. Aquatic biomonitoring can represent the overall health and status of the environment, detect different environmental trends and how different stressors will affect those trends, and interpret the affect of different environmental activity will have on the overall health of the environment. Pollution and general stresses to aquatic life can have a huge impact on the environment in general. The main sources of pollution to oceans, rivers, and lakes are sewage, oil spills, land runoff, littering, ocean mining, and nuclear waste. These types of pollution cause a huge upset to marine life and can endanger any species in the water or that live close to the water. When aquatic species are affected, it causes a ripple effect. Many aquatic animals are a main food source for many land animals. For example: if a specific species of fish ingest toxins and become sick, the birds that ingest that species of fish will also become sick. Then the animal that ingest that bird will also become sick. This is a problem that can be avoided by monitoring all life and conditions in different bodies of water, including fresh and salt water. The main draw back on aquatic biomonitoring is simplifying data and making data easier for all to understand. Taking data from monitoring sites and making it available for people to use in the health fields and other environmental fields can be a challenge. Mechanisms that are used for Aquatic Biomonitoring are monitoring and assessing aquatic species and ecosystems, monitoring the behavior of certain aquatic species and assessing any changes in species behavior, and looking at contaminants in the water and their effect on marine life. Water is graded on several scales. One is the water’s appearance. Is the water clear, cloudy, full of algae. Next, water is graded on its chemistry levels. How much of each enzyme or mineral located in the water is extremely important. Any changes in any of these factors can change the water’s environment overall and therefore change how life in the water is.
Views: 679 The Audiopedia
Canada’s Fossil Fuels Lobby Issues Dubious Data in a Bid for More Pipelines
Adam Scott of Oil Change International offers a critical analysis of new data from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers Visit http://therealnews.com for more stories and help support our work by donating at http://therealnews.com/donate.
Views: 1643 The Real News Network
Mainstreaming Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and Human Rights into the Mining Sector
This webinar explores tools and strategies to understand and act upon the effects of mining on human rights, including the right to a safe and healthy environment of different groups in society, across time, and across different localities. We will introduce the ecosystem services framework and explain how it can be used to enhance public decision-making and strengthen Environmental Impact Assessment procedures, thus preventing the negative effects of mining. The webinar will also focus on the environmental licensing functions and tasks of government institutions at the national and regional level. Using Colombia as a case study, we will analyze the role of public administration in promoting good governance and preventing environmental harm by the mining sector.
Views: 378 NBSAP Forum
Biodiversity crisis hierarchy video
Three-quarters of species on earth were wiped out in the fifth mass extinction, including the dinosaurs. 66 M Yrs later, scientists are now warning that we are entering the sixth mass extinction, and it's caused by people. Extinction rates are well above normal. We've managed to exterminate more than 300 vertebrate animals in modern times and most that remain have declined enormously. For example, 40% of mammals have lost more than 80% of their former range. For the insects and other animals without backbones, the picture is worse. Considering just the land snails, we may already have lost more than 1000 species. To help address this biological annihilation, the United Nations Environment Program set up The Convention on Biological Diversity. 196 countries, that's nearly all of them, have signed up to the 20 targets under their strategic plan. To figure out how well the targets were being met, the Convention on Biological Diversity have adopted indicators to measure HUMAN ACTIONS AS WELL AS aspects of biodiversity that should improve under each target These indicators are potentially important: they tell governments and the community what we need to achieve to save biodiversity, as well as measuring progress towards targets. but most of the indicators so far are showing that things are getting worse for biodiversity. The biodiversity crisis is escalating, despite nearly all nations agreeing to the targets set under the Convention on Biological Diversity. What is going wrong? What if we take a step out from what is being done …..and consider the full range of processes that drive biodiversity loss. So we have this disastrous loss of biodiversity, including loss of ecosystems, species extinctions, and range contractions that erode genetic diversity. There is a range of threats that cause this biodiversity loss, (urbanization, agriculture, mining, roads, hunting, recreation and war, dams and fires, invasive species, pollution, and climate change) and each of these immediate threats have direct drivers, the threat-industries; for example, real-estate developers are the direct driver of urbanization, the pet, horticulture and agriculture trades directly introduce and spread invasive species. These industries are in place to meet the increasing demands for resources by a growing human population. The number of people, and how much each person consumes are the fundamental drivers of the biodiversity crisis. Right at the top of this hierarchy of drivers sit the instigators: Society and Government. The combined actions of society and government can modify the impact of threat industries through regulation, corruption, funding for the environment and knowledge about biodiversity So how well do indicators used under the convention for biological diversity represent the components of this biodiversity-crisis hierarchy? A count of the number of indicators reveals some startling gaps. Even though Government, corruption, mining and roads have enormous influence on biodiversity, they had no indicators. And while human population size is a fundamental driver of the biodiversity crisis, it only has one indicator. Another way to evaluate how well indicators represent the hierarchy is to look at the scope of each component of the hierarchy relative to the scope of the indictors. For example, the aspects of society that influence biodiversity loss includes beliefs and culture, individual actions, effectiveness of NGOs, corporate social responsibility and corporate political activity But of the 16 indicators for society, 10 were about measuring benefits from nature, one was about individual choices and one related to the role of NGOs in protected areas. There are no indicators about political donations, nothing about cultural pressures to consume, nothing about religious influences over population growth, such as access to contraception and education about family planning By considering the scope in this way we find that only consumption has high coverage, four have medium coverage, and the rest have low or no coverage. These gaps emphasise that part of the solution is to develop new indicators and new targets that cover all of the components in the biodiversity-crisis hierarchy. But the biggest part of the solution is for all of us to recognize where these drivers intersect with our every-day lives. You can take action to reduce the flow-on impacts for biodiversity. This includes the simplest actions, like voting for a party with strong environmental policies or consuming less meat, right through to big commitments, like strengthening environmental NGOs, or leading the charge to increase the capacity of society to limit family size and resource consumption. Action is needed across the entire biodiversity crisis hierarchy to get a better outcome for biodiversity and for people.
Views: 723 Don Driscoll
Energy: The Most Important Challenge | James Whittaker | TEDxUCCI
ENERGY - The single most important challenge of the 21st century for Caribbean nations. An issue that tramples all others..... accounting for dramatic impacts to National Security, Economic prosperity, Social harmony... Food, Water, Real Estate, Development, Finance, Tourism, Jobs, Growth, Climate Change, etc. etc. None of these things will remain or become positive if countries like Cayman and other in the region dont radically change the way we utilise and produce energy. There will be nothing short of failed states, destroyed natural resources and mass migration of our people if we do not address the single greatest challenge of our time, energy. "A Caymanian by birth" with degrees in Banking, Accounting and International Finance, James spent nearly 20 years working in the financial sectors of Cayman, New York and Bermuda.A pioneer of sustainability in the Caribbean, James brings a unique blend of analytical thinking, relentless passion and inspired ideas with the goal to sustainably change the built environment of the Cayman Islands for the betterment of future generations. Following his passion for the environment, renewable energy and green building James created the GreenTech Group of companies, the only green building solutions conglomerate in the Caribbean providing a full range of sustainability solutions; from design and building of green homes to renewable energy and LEED certification. James is the Chairman of the Cayman Renewable Energy Association (CREA), the President of the Caribbean Sustainability Institute, and the founder of the Project Green School and Island Offset Carbon Emissions Programs. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx
Views: 422 TEDx Talks
Human activities that threaten biodiversity
How do humans negatively affect biodiversity? Our actions in a given environment cause problems directly and indirectly. For more biodiversity tutorials, visit http://bit.ly/cas-khan.
ICO Review: Health Nexus (HLTH)  - Blockchain Healthcare Ecosystem
Health Nexus is a marketplace for handling data transfer, payments, and storage in the healthcare industry. Learn more: https://crushcrypto.com/health-nexus-ico-review/ Project website: https://tokensale.simplyvitalhealth.com/ White paper: https://docsend.com/view/cuufmc5 Download the PDF version of the presentation: https://crushcrypto.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/CrushCrypto-ICO-Review-Health-Nexus-HLTH.pdf Download the free ICO Guide which contains 6 simple steps for analyzing any ICOs to find the winning projects: https://crushcrypto.com/youtube/ Note: This is not a paid review. We do not offer promotional or advertising services. Our content is based on our own research, analysis and personal opinion. _______________________________________ What does the company/project do? Health Nexus is a marketplace built by SimplyVital Health to handle data transfer, payments, and storage in the healthcare industry. Healthcare application providers can build services on the Health Nexus marketplace for users to access and share data. Their goal is to create a system that can pass the tough requirements of healthcare by ensuring better data integrity, encryption, and an efficient validation system. The Health Nexus system will utilize a distributed hash table (DHT) for data storage, managed by a governance system. Their blockchain protocol will be based off the Ethereum network, starting with proof of stake (Casper). Health Nexus is implementing several modifications to the Ethereum protocol, such as the ability to store identity on the network, a governing system that allows for upgrading and validation, and interactions built in for communication with the distributed hash table. _______________________________________ What are the tokens used for and how can token holders make money? Due to strict regulations around privacy and security in the healthcare industry, existing currencies such as Ether would not function appropriately with a HIPAA-compliant system. Thus, Health Nexus is launching the HLTH token to be compliant with healthcare processes and have data sharing capabilities. The HLTH token will be able to: 1. Reward miners/validators and data storage devices that run on the ecosystem 2. Act as an incentive mechanism for early platform adopters 3. Provide a transaction currency that allows someone the ability to buy and sell medical data and take part in the medical application system Platform users will need the token to be able to transfer permissioned keys that give access to off-chain data and access smart contracts or data storage space. The token will be used by people involved in the transaction and used to pay node fees for running the network. If more people and healthcare providers adopt the Health Nexus platform over time, the token will be more valuable as it is required for transactions and data acquisition on the platform. _______________________________________ Opportunities - The company already has a revenue generating app that will be listed on the marketplace. However, the amount of revenue is not disclosed so it could be a very small amount, given that the company is not a year old yet. - The marketplace is a platform that allowed third party applications to be listed on. The potential for the project is substantial if a significant amount of users transact on the platform using the different applications. - The idea of the project makes sense and would provide significant real world benefits. If successful, the project can save a substantial amount of money in the inefficient healthcare industry. _______________________________________ Concerns - The project has a very long development roadmap of 4+ years. The token swap from ERC20 token to HLTH 2.0 mainnet token is scheduled to happen in Phase 3, or 2 years after the end of token sale. - The marketplace is a two-sided market – Health Nexus needs both (1) applications to be built on top of the marketplace, and (2) users to use the marketplace in order to create the network effect. - One of the main areas of focus of Health Nexus is on medical data recording/reporting, which is a highly regulated space in the US. We believe it would be difficult/slow for companies in this space to adopt blockchain technology. _______________________________________ Disclaimer The information in this video is for educational purposes only and is not investment advice. Please do your own research before making any investment decisions. Cryptocurrency investments are volatile and high risk in nature. Don't invest more than what you can afford to lose. Crush Crypto makes no representations, warranties, or assurances as to the accuracy, currency or completeness of the content contained in this video or any sites linked to or from this video.
Views: 1988 Crush Crypto
ICARUS Project - IWRM for Climate Change Adaptation in Rural Social Ecosystems in Southern Europe
This webinar will discuss the various reports produced; on climatic forcing variables and downscaled climate change scenarios; on land use scenarios and socio-economic scenarios and constraints for irrigation management. The period considered in these reports extends from 2015 to 2030.
ACM: Addressing Climate Risks to Hydro Power: Planning for Resilient Power Systems
At the October 2017 Adaptation Community Meeting Dr. Molly Hellmuth discussed how to address climate risks to hydro power.  Hydropower is growing rapidly worldwide as a clean and renewable energy source that helps countries enhance energy security and curb greenhouse gas emissions, depending on location.   The benefits of hydropower are especially salient for smaller-scale hydro, given its smaller environmental and social footprint. New financial instruments, such as green bonds and payments for water services, along with engagement from multilateral agencies also make smaller-scale hydropower investment more attractive and feasible.  But what does a changing climate mean for hydropower? Changing rainfall patterns, rising temperature, more frequent or intense droughts and extreme weather events, glacier and snow-pack melt, sea level rise and resulting flooding all affect hydroelectricity generation capacity. Unless these risks are addressed, the intended hydropower benefits of improving energy access and security while reducing emissions relative to other power sources, may fall short.  This is particularly true if electricity grids must turn to traditional, carbon-intensive energy sources, such as coal-fired plants, when hydropower becomes constrained. Based on a recently released paper developed by the USAID-funded Resources to Advance LEDS Implementation (RALI) project, this presentation highlighted 1) how climate change can affect power generation resources, particularly hydropower resources; and 2) an approach that can be taken to address climate change risks, both at the project and sector level, to improve power system resilience and enhance energy security.
Views: 83 Climatelinks
SAVE OUR PLANET   Key species and habitats jeopardized by climate change
SAVE OUR PLANET... Key species and habitats jeopardized by climate change. Issued by the US-based Endangered Species Coalition, the report, "It's Getting Hot Out There: Top 10 Places to Save for Endangered Species in a Warming World," describes ecosystems that are already under threat due to climate change. Based on data from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which states that up to 30% of all species face increased risk of extinction with a 3 degree Celsius rise in temperature, the report outlines vulnerabilities while urging the US government for greater protection of natural habitats. Top among the ten jeopardized ecosystems is the Arctic Sea region, noted to be warming at twice the rate of the rest of the world, with dwindling habitats for polar bears, Pacific walrus and at least six species of seals. Other ecosystems on the list include the Sierra Mountains in California, USA where 30 native species of amphibians, including the yellow-legged frog, are known to be at risk, and the Greater Everglades of the southern USA, home to 67 threatened and endangered species, including the beloved herbivorous marine mammal, the manatee. Commenting on the imminent perils to animals and Earth as seen through these locations, Endangered Species Coalition Executive Director Leda Huta stated, "Climate change is no longer a distant threat on the horizon. It has arrived and is threatening ecosystems that we all depend upon, and our endangered species are particularly vulnerable. If we are serious about saving endangered species from global warming, then these are the places to start." Thank you, Executive Director Huta and Endangered Species Coalition for identifying these key areas that need our attention now. Let us all join in immediate actions to protect our planet and her precious inhabitants. As part of her tireless efforts to protect all the irreplaceable beings on Earth, Supreme Master Ching Hai spoke of the vital role of humanity's care for our animal co-inhabitants during an August 2009 videoconference in Thailand. Videoconference with Supreme Master Ching Hai "The Premiere of Supreme Master Ching Hai's Books: The Dogs in My Life & The Noble Wilds -- Aulacese (Vietnamese) Edition" Nonthaburi, Thailand -- August 15, 2009 Supreme Master Ching Hai: The animal friends are in many ways more aware of climate change than we are because they are the ones on the frontlines holding up nature's delicate web of life. They are also, sadly, the first-hand victims of global warming, as we have witnessed and discovered. They are in our hands, the humans' hands. And the essential change that will be the most restorative for our world is to be vegan. That is the essence of what we need to stabilize the planet, to bless the world through our everyday benevolent actions, meaning be vegan.
Views: 383 NoteworthyNews
Cyberinfrastructure, New Research and Reuse of Data
2008 GIS Symposium: Sustaining the Future & Understanding the Past. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide ideal platforms for the convergence of disease-specific information and analyses in relation to the natural environment, global human health and public policy. Climate change and biodiversity loss, from genes to ecosystems, may play a role in disease emergence and transmission. Recorded in the Kelvin Smith Library, Case Western Reserve University on April 3, 2008.
Views: 275 case
Frontiers in One Health -- Disease Resurgence From Climactic and Ecological Change
May 16th, 2011 Dr. Jonathan Patz, M.D., M.P.H., from the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment in Madison, Wisconsin, examines the health effects of global warming and environmental change. He provides an overview of how human activities have contributed to climate alterations and goes on to explore the ways in which climate change will impact the health of humans, animals, and ecosystems. He pays particular attention to the predicted rise in rise in vector borne diseases, and the resurgence of malaria in the Amazon.
Views: 1365 UC Davis Vet Med
Scientists working in Colorado say they are seeing the effects of climate change on the local plants
1. Wide view Colorado mountains, wildflowers 2. Various views mountains, snow 3. Close-up sign to Gothic, site of The Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory 4. Various views researchers trapping marmots, weighing and releasing them 5. SOUNDBITE (English): Dan Blumstein, UCLA Ecology Professor: "The longest study that I know of at the lab is the marmot data set, which was begun in 1962 by Ken Armitage, an emeritus professor at University of Kansas. I have inherited Ken's study system and am trying to continue this so that we can continue to learn more about climatic factors and social factors affecting marmot population biology." 6. Mid view Blumstein and researchers looking for marmots 7. Various view marmots being trapped 8. Close-up marmot being released 9. SOUNDBITE (English): Dan Blumstein, UCLA Ecology Professor: "In our valley, in recent history, it is warmer in the spring and there is more spring snow pack. Both of these things seemingly influence the marmots. The working hypothesis that we are trying to evaluate better is that marmots, the timing of marmot emergence is based on spring temperatures. So if it is warmer, earlier then marmots seemingly emerge earlier. In our valley, in the spring, we also have more snow so there is a deeper snow pack. So when marmots emerge earlier through a deeper snow pack they have a longer time to wait before vegetation grows up and while they are out there and the place is covered with snow, the coyotes are out eating the marmots. So here is sort of a double whammy - they have to survive longer without eating because there is no food for them to eat - they don't save food they store fat and suddenly the predators are out picking off these brown little spots on the snow that have no place to run too." 10. Close-up wildflowers at waters edge 11. Mid view pond, reflection of mountains 12. Close-up sparrow singing 13. Close-up sparrow being measured 14. SOUNDBITE (English): Johannes Foufopoulos, University of Michigan Professor of Natural Resources and Environment: "The trend in the last few years seems that it has been getting both warmer and drier and at the same time what we have been seeing is the sparrow population decreasing. When I originally came to this site we picked this area because the bird population was really dense, there were lots of birds it was a good study population. These days there aren't as many birds around. You work in these ecosystems you really care about them some extent you really invest a lot of energy doing research here and it is sad to see them slowly disappear and get degraded. So definitely there is an emotional component to it but there is also a very practical component, you can't do much research if your birds are gone, right?" 15. Close-up blood being taken from sparrow 16. Close-up sparrow being released 17. Various views David Inouye studying flora 18. SOUNDBITE (English): Professor David Inouye, University of Maryland: "So this year we had a pretty good snow pack, but it melted pretty quickly and that started the growing season early. That got some of these plants, like the lupins, off to an early start forming buds and then we had a hard frost." 19. Close-up Professor Inouye studying flowers 20. SOUNDBITE (English): Professor David Inouye, University of Maryland: "We seem to have a growing deer population in this valley - perhaps in part because the winters are not as harsh as they used to be and there is not as many deer dying during the wintertime." 21. Close-up deer in valley, eating 22. SOUNDBITE (English): Professor David Inouye, University of Maryland: 23. Mid view sagebrush environment found at lower altitudes 24. Wide, tilt up view of Professor Inouye walking through valley to view of mountains You can license this story through AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/metadata/youtube/7945dbd31a54eb5e10ea53b84172a753 Find out more about AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/HowWeWork
Views: 120 AP Archive
Vikas Kharage, IAS : Presentation at COP24, Katowice, Poland
Vikas Kharage, IAS, Secretery (Forests) presented on 8th December 2018 at COP24, Katowice, Poland on the topic ‘Technological and Policy Innovations for forestry based solutions for Climate Change’. He spoke on Efforts of Government of Maharashtra in mitigating the effects of climate changes in the state.
Views: 135 Vikas Kharage
Uncertainty in Hydrological and Water Resource Modelling
This talk begins with an overview of the properties of hydrological and water resource models then charts the history of their use inclimate risk assessment at the catchment-scale. Concepts such as equifinality in (hydrological) modelling and associated implications for climate impact assessment will then be explored. Uncertainties linked to hydrological model structures and parameters are placed in the wider context of other major uncertainties arising from non - climatic pressures, climate model and downscaling biases. Explanations for apparent mismatches between observed and expected hydrological change at regional scales will be offered. Two case studies will then demonstrate how models can be used as ‘virtual laboratories’ for exploring multiple working hypotheses about hydrological change (in the Boyne, Republic of Ireland), and for assessing outcomes of adaptation options (in the Upper Colorado, USA). The talk will conclude with a summary of outstanding research challenges and explain how these relate to the information needs of water planners. RECOMMENDED READING Attribution of detected changes in streamflow using multiple working hypotheses. (https://wiki.ucar.edu/download/attachments/291513802/Harrigan%20et%20al%202013%20%28for%20Wilby%29.pdf?versio n=1&modificationDate=1405000750000&api=v2)
Views: 8394 UCARConnect
Approaches to big data: climate change, health care and privacy (UEA)
The Rt Hon Charles Clarke chairs a panel of UEA academics, as they discuss what big data actually is and what it means for our society. With Prof Phil Jones (Climatic Research Unit), Prof Ruth Hancock (Norwich Medical School) and Dr Paul Bernal (School of Law) http://www.uea.ac.uk
Views: 279 UEA
The melting North Pole, is our North Pole too | Maarten Loonen | TEDxVenlo
Maarten has spent every summer for the last thirty years doing research in Svalbard. During this period he has witnessed drastic shifts in the environment. Maarten envisions a world where we can adapt to rapid changes in the environment like global warming. Raising awareness and creating a connection with the north pole is why Maarten wants to talk about these changes and their causes during his TED-talk. Dr Maarten Loonen is a polar researcher who has been travelling to Spitsbergen for over 25 years to study the behaviour of migratory birds and changes in their living conditions. The Polar regions are unique for researchers as rises in temperature and the consequences for humans, animals and plants are extra visible here. On Spitsbergen, Loonen and other Groningen scientists are studying whale hunting, tourism, mining, ecosystems and the consequences of climate change for migratory birds. In 2014, Loonen was one of the researchers of the University of Groningen that were invited by the Dutch Navy to join an expedition to Jan Mayen island. This was a unique opportunity for the researchers to visit this isolated island. The multidisciplinary research team concentrated on archaeology and biology. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx
Views: 750 TEDx Talks
How The Moon Controls Biological Cycles
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/PBSDSDonate This video is FULL of cool MOON biology 😏 Don’t miss our next video! SUBSCRIBE! ►► http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub ↓↓↓ More info and sources below ↓↓↓ Organisms of all shapes and sizes synchronize their behaviors using biological clocks. Some keep pace with the daily rising and setting sun using circadian rhythms. Others use annual cycles or the changing seasons as their cue. But many animals use moonlight and Earth’s lunar cycle to run their biological clock. Do humans do the same thing, with things like menstrual cycles? This week we take a look at living by moonlight. Menstrual cycle data courtesy of Clue app (https://helloclue.com/) Grunion footage courtesy of KQED’s Deep Look (https://www.youtube.com/user/KQEDDeepLook) and Dr. Michael Murrie - Pepperdine University SOURCES: The Myth of the Moon and Menstruation: https://medium.com/clued-in/the-myth-of-the-moon-and-menstruation-f85b151e45c3 Grant, Rachel, Tim Halliday, and Elizabeth Chadwick. "Amphibians’ response to the lunar synodic cycle—a review of current knowledge, recommendations, and implications for conservation." Behavioral Ecology 24.1 (2012): 53-62. Zhang, Lin, et al. "Dissociation of circadian and circatidal timekeeping in the marine crustacean Eurydice pulchra." Current Biology 23.19 (2013): 1863-1873. Zantke, Juliane, et al. "Circadian and circalunar clock interactions in a marine annelid." Cell reports 5.1 (2013): 99-113. Warren, H. B. Aspects of the behaviour of the impala male, Aepyceros melampus, during the rut. National Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia, 1974. ----------- FOLLOW US: Merch: https://store.dftba.com/collections/its-okay-to-be-smart Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/itsokaytobesmart Twitter: @okaytobesmart @DrJoeHanson Tumblr: http://www.itsokaytobesmart.com Instagram: @DrJoeHanson Snapchat: YoDrJoe ----------- It’s Okay To Be Smart is hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.D. Director: Joe Nicolosi Writer: Eli Kintisch Editor/animator: Stephen Fishman Producer: Stephanie Noone and Amanda Fox Produced by PBS Digital Studios Music via APM Stock images from Shutterstock http://www.shutterstock.com
Views: 215413 It's Okay To Be Smart
Adapting our Landscape to a Changing Climate - Change for Climate Talks
Dustin Bajer is an educator, master gardener, beekeeper, ecologically inspired designer, and urban agriculture consultant. He's also co-chair of the Edmonton Food Council. In this Change for Climate Talk, Dustin speaks about how climate change will affect growing food in Edmonton and his vision for adapting our gardens. Change for Climate Talks are short and inspiring presentations by local community leaders who want to share their ideas on how we can act on climate change. This presentation was filmed during the first Change for Climate Talks on Dec. 9, 2017. Find many other ways you can act on climate change by visiting http://changeforclimate.ca.
Views: 8565 City of Edmonton
The Amazing Future of Deep Ocean Exploration
Biofluorescent sharks, deep sea mining, seafloor vents, underwater drones, and the disturbing effects of ocean acidification: exploring the future of oceanographic discovery. Subscribe to TDC: https://www.youtube.com/TheDailyConversation/ Video by Bryce Plank and Robin West Music: Timelapse (TDC Remix): MotionArray.com Drums of the Deep by Kevin MacLeod: Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1400021 Consequence: https://soundcloud.com/mattstewartevans https://www.facebook.com/Matthew.Stewart.Evans Hydra (TDC Remix): YT Audio Library The Stranger (Glimpse): https://soundcloud.com/glimpse_official Dark Night by Matt Stewart Evans: https://soundcloud.com/mattstewartevans https://www.facebook.com/Matthew.Stewart.Evans Featured videos: Mining: https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/video/2017/jun/28/robots-ocean-floor-deep-sea-mining-video Sonar mapping: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CRQuID0IwbY Microbes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uktdKw_bJ_8 Biofluorescence: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/explorers/bios/david-gruber/ Susan Avery TED talk: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gMQIgKyX3oU Triona McGrath TED talk: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJPpJhQxaLw Robert Ballard's EV Nautilus: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jOIOXvU0_qk James Cameron's Deepsea Challenger: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSfESqX-E84 Wired's profile on HOV's vs ROV's: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUzz_ilsFa0 Onboard the Okeanos Explorer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p0G68ORc8uQ With 95% of the ocean floor unexplored, the deep sea is Earth’s last frontier. Its pioneers are scientists leveraging the latest technology to cast light on the massive and incomprehensibly dark environment that extends more than 35,000 feet down. Until recently, this world was known only to our planet’s most unearthly species. This is the story of our largest biome—and the people devoting themselves to understanding it and saving it for future generations. 40 years ago we discovered hydrothermal vents, which act as Earth's plumbing system, transporting chemicals and extreme heat from the molten core of our planet, helping to regulate the chemical makeup of the oceans. But this seemingly toxic environment is still home to life. Organisms that don’t need photosynthesis to survive can live down here. And with most of the seafloor left to explore, many species remain undiscovered. Studying these unlikely ecosystems can teach us about the earliest stages of life’s evolution here on Earth, and about the possibility of life on other planets. That’s why NASA is working with oceanographers to help plan the mission to explore Jupiter's ice-covered moon, Europa. And because these vents form in active volcanic zones, they also help us better understand how landforms and moves over time. Plus, the sludge that’s constantly spewing from the vents contains some of the most valuable metals known to man. [Guardian video journalist] “In the deep ocean, where the water is as dark as ink, lie riches that no treasure hunters have managed to retrieve. They are deposits of precious minerals, from cobalt to gold, that have tantalized miners and nations for decades...” In 2019, a Canadian company will make the first-ever attempt at extracting these minerals. Using the latest technologies and massive, custom designed vehicles, it aims to bring up $1.5 billion worth of metals from a single site 25km off the coast of Papua New Guinea. Nautilus says it will minimize environmental damage by using infrared cameras and sonar to pinpoint the exact location of ore deposits, allowing it to shred less of the ocean floor. But environmentalists aren’t buying it. Preserving a sensitive ecosystem 8,000 feet underwater from the impact of mining is just not that simple. Unfortunately, we may not have much choice. There’s growing demand for these metals, but dwindling supplies of them on land. Cobalt — for instance — is used in jet engines, lithium-ion batteries, and the computer or smartphone you’re watching this video on—and the machines we made it on. But this age-old clash between miners and environment is really just one chapter in a much larger story of technology development—innovations aimed at maintaining the delicate balance of the increasingly threatened ocean ecosystem. One such tool is the EK80 broadband acoustic echo sounder. It uses a range of frequencies to paint a much more comprehensive picture of the amount and types of species living in a selected area of water.
Views: 34516 The Daily Conversation
Younger Dryas Cataclysm and the Destruction of Atlantis
Contents 00:00:07 Sundaland | 00:01:46 “Out of Africa” hypothesis | 00:04:12 “Out of Sundaland” model | 00:04:49 Younger Dryas cataclysm | 07:31:55 Population dispersal | 00:08:29 Atlantis | 00:11:41 Sundaland theories of Atlantis | 00:14:12 60 converging evidence | 00:14:26 The Atlantic Ocean | 00:16:27 The geography | 00:17:52 The climate | 00:18:26 The ecology | 00:19:49 The animals | 00:21:44 The land products | 00:24:37 The mining products | 00:26:01 The level plain | 00:27:59 The waterways | 00:32:50 The capital city | 00:35:44 The coral reef | 00:37:46 The Monuments of Heracles | 00:39:56 The geology of the capital city | 00:41:17 The god Poseidon | 00:44:58 Heracles | 00:48:25 The “bull” sacrifices | 00:49:47 The pyramid | 00:52:44 The maritime activities | 00:53:55 The technologies | 00:56:06 The destruction A vast southeastern part of the Asian continental shelf was exposed during the Last Glacial Period, geologically named as the Sundaland. Sundaland is in the tropics, surrounded by oceans, and within the Ring of Fire, where a large number of volcanic eruptions occur. Benefitting from the heavy precipitation, volcanic deposits in Sundaland develop into some of the richest forestry and agricultural lands, and developed into some of the richest fauna on Earth. The “Out of Africa” hypothesis is a theory that argues that every modern human being is descended from a small group in Africa, who then dispersed into the wider world. Most versions of the southern dispersal hypothesis suggests that modern humans left Africa between 130,000 and 70,000 years ago, and traveled along the coasts of Arabia, India and Sundaland, arriving in Australia by 50,000 to 40,000 years ago. The “Out of Sundaland” migration model argues that the origin of the Austronesian speakers is in the islands of Southeast Asia. Ideal climatic conditions and natural resources for development were found in Sundaland. After migrating from the semi-deserted savannas of Africa, man first found a place where food was abundant and it was there that they invented farming, agriculture, trading and civilization, which made humanity first flourished. A striking thing that can be observed in this model is the dispersal of population to the other part of the world about 11,000 years ago. An unusual event was happened here. The event is detected from the observation data. The change of the world temperature made the ice on the north pole to melt and the sea level continued to rise. Cracks in the earth’s crust as the weight of the ice shifted to the seas could set off catastrophic events. The most significant one is at the end of the Younger Dryas period. Earthquakes, volcano eruptions, super waves and floods engulfed the coastal cultures and all the flat continental shelves of Sundaland, and wiped out many populations. As the sea rolled in, there was a mass migration of the survivors from the sinking continent. From the legends, myths and tales, Sundaland has many names, among others are Garden of Eden, Paradise, Dilmun, Nippur, Nisir, Neserser, Ta Netjer, Land of Punt, Land of Ophir, Atlantis, Kumari Kandam, Pandya, Kangdez, Tollan and Siwan, Taprobana, and Golden Khersonese. The Destruction of Atlantis Plato mentioned that the island of Atlantis was beset, in a night and a day, by an earthquake and a flood in a night and a day, 9,000 years before Solon, or about 11,600 years ago. This accurately coincided with the cataclysm at the end of the Younger Dryas period. In some other his explanations, it is implied that the flood was coming from the sea, so the possibility is a tsunami. Plato did not recognize “tsunami” so he equated it to “flood”. Earthquakes and tsunamis are very often correlated. Frequent and significant earthquakes, tsunamis and volcano eruptions took place in Southeast Asia, one of the most complex tectonic region on Earth. Tsunami are known for their dramatic run-up heights, can also be excited or amplified in height considerably in shallow waters and on flat plains, and can oscillate back and forth within harbors and bays. We could speculate that the destruction of Atlantis was among others caused by a tsunami in this region. It was due to the tsunami waves traveling in shallow water, that was the ancient Java Sea, and penetrated inland on a very flat plain. The ancient Java Sea was forming a gulf, which could cause the wave became much higher and prolonged, and destructive. Plato also describes that the lands of Atlantis and “the Athens” were sunken ceaselessly afterwards. This is in line with the recent knowledge of post-glacial sea level rise. The sea level kept on rising until about 6,000 years ago, sinking the low lands as well as low plains in Sundaland. The ruin of the Atlantis city and its story were buried forever under the sea. Then, it was remembered by the Egyptians who migrated from there, and wrote them on their sacred registers. More articles at www.atlantisjavasea.com
Soil to Sky - Our vision and inspiration
The Ecological Sequestration Trust and the world's first integrated ecological - social and economic systems model http://resilience.io introduced in a short film. Soil to Sky is presented in partnership with the International Centre for Earth Simulation. The film was first presented at the Mansion House in London at the invitation of Fiona Woolf. Our planet, our home is a world of deserts, forests, mountains, wetlands, oceans and complex atmospherics an intricate web of interlocking ecosystems that supports all life, including our own. Yet that life and beauty is under threat. For two hundred thousand years, humanity has thrived on the earth’s natural resources but in the last century our use of them has accelerated to such an extent, that it questions our current model for human development. We have treated success as ever increasing consumption and growth and not accounted for the cost of pollution and natural capital loss. Our world is experiencing the largest wave of urban growth in history. By 2030 5 billion people will be living in towns and cities. Huge investments are being made that will determine living patterns for a hundred years, during which time we will be increasingly affected by global environmental and economic change. But the local conditions can only be accurately taken into account when the global picture is clear. Bob Bishop, founder of the International Centre for Earth Simulation, is bringing together whole earth systems models so that we can understand earth system changes and their impact on city regions. An example is the impact of glacier melt in the Himalayas on river flows in India, China and South East Asia home to nearly 40% of the world’s population. Earth observation satellites provide continuous information about the planet, and the best city-regional models are wired with today’s technology to provide data streams from local sensor networks, smart phones and tablets. Finding a new paradigm for sustainable livelihoods will involve linking global and local systems, it will involve forging an understanding that we, and our towns and cities, do not stand apart from nature but are in a symbiotic relationship with it. Peter Head founder of the Ecological Sequestration Trust is. in partnership with ICES, helping bring all this together for use in city regions. Together, Peter Head and Bob Bishop realised that we need to understand and link the way human and ecological activity interact and impact on our well-being; and based on this knowledge, create the practical tools we need for making decisions and investment choices. Gandhi said there is no point in running fast unless you are running in the right direction. This story is about enabling communities all over the world to find that direction and access the funding to improve human well-being. Surat in India, is a city of 4.3 Million people. A population that is growing at a time when the vital monsoon rains are becoming increasingly unpredictable. To help the city adapt to these challenges, Peter proposed creating an integrated model of the city, so that local people could model the investments that would improve human and ecological health and well-being. In the backstreets of Surat he made a valuable discovery – one which was the inspiration behind The Ecological Sequestration Trust. Surat is a centre for diamond cutting. 80% of the world’s small diamonds are cut and polished here. Peter was surprised to find the factory was a modern five story block, and the work place for 2000 young people, all from a select group of local villages, which compete for process excellence in return for wage and accommodation. Diamond mining involves seeing through dirty, unpromising rock and searching for the beauty and riches that we can create from within. Music BREAK What is true of diamond mining is also true of our run down and unproductive towns and cities. The potential is there, but it needs to be discovered, nurtured and supported using human ingenuity. We try to improve lives, but we use different policies in different nations – we don’t integrate our efforts and people lose hope, even in rich nations. We need to find the valuable jewel within; in the same way that the computer identifies the position of the diamonds within the coarse rock, allowing them to be extracted with lasers, making the process incredibly precise and highly efficient. A combination of advanced technology and highly motivated, skilled people from the villages, creates the diamonds, their value and the wealth of that ultimately supports their communities...
Proper environmental planning to curb ubernzation impacts on the environment
Uncontrolled population growth that has stretched the available resources to their maximum limit has been blamed for surging conflict and insecurity. Rapid urbanization is fast altering the face of the earth, potentially resulting in environmental degradation unless proper environmental planning is adopted. In the first of a two part series, Abigael Sum explored on the impact of urbanization on climate change in Channel1's segment of 'Earth Watch'
Views: 151 KBC Channel 1
MANFRED - Management strategies to adapt Alpine Space forests to climate change risks
MANFRED is an Alpine Space project co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund. With the climate change, the ecological conditions for forests in the Alpine Space are fundamentally changing -- with unknown effects on the forests' essential protective, ecological, economical and social functions. Under different climate and land-use change scenarios only an adaptive management can provide the conservation of the natural heritage and the multiple functions. MANFRED bridges the gap between research and practical forest management and seeks to collect knowledge with regard to climate change effects on 4 main topics: forest growth and land use changes, hazards & stressors, best practices to face extreme events protection forests; identify hot spots with concrete need for action on the regional & local level; develop management strategies able to adapt to changing environmental conditions; contribute to the implementation of suggested adapted management strategies in cooperation with political decision makers in 4 transnational case study regions.
Views: 190 EU & Alpine Space
Forest Dynamics in North America - NASA /SVS (2018)
Forests are always changing. They're a very dynamic ecosystem. We've used data from the Landsat satellites to produce a comprehensive look at forest dynamics on the scale of human management and natural disturbances. Dark green pixels had no disturbances in the 25 years studied. Yellow shows where a disturbance happened in a particular year. At this scale, what really stands out are the large fires in the West and timber harvesting in the Pacific Northwest, Maine, and all across the Southeast. We need to know the rate of disturbance and how that rate is changing in order to understand how carbon is changing across the landscape. Here we can see the impact of policy decisions on forest dynamics The various protected areas around Broken Bow Lake remain largely undisturbed compared to the surrounding region, which flickers with the tell-tale patches of timber harvesting. Any disturbance, whether from fire or hurricanes, mining or logging, impacts how much carbon the forest can store. The southern and central Appalachian Mountains, from Tennessee to West Virginia, are home to most of the disturbances resulting from mountaintop removal mining. Throughout Appalachia, coal mining has been a big industry since the 1860s, and mountaintop mining became dominant over the last 30 years. The Hobet Mine in Boone County, West Virginia, existed before 1986 and has continued to expand throughout the course of this study. The pattern we see at the Hobet Mine is replicated across the entire southern Appalachia. We mostly think of hurricanes wreaking houses, flooding cities, and endangering lives. But they can also damage forests, knocking down wide swaths of trees. Hurricane Hugo was a category 4 storm when it struck South Carolina in September of 1989, and the scale of the disturbance shows in the 1990 data. Four and a half million acres of forest were affected by wind gusts and storm surges of salt water. Disturbances of this magnitude can release large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere as the trees decompose. Tornadoes leave long tracks of damaged forests in their wake showing as a bright line in the satellite imagery. These long straight tracks are extremely distinctive of this type of disturbance. On Mother's Day in 2008, several tornadoes in Georgia left a track 150 kilometers long and about 2 kilometers wide. For many tree species in the Rocky Mountain West, fire is a natural part of their life cycle, clearing space for new growth on the forest floor and releasing seeds from their pinecones. But climate change is projected to increase the intensity and frequency of wildfires. In 1988, Yellowstone National Park endured the largest fire ever recorded there. Many individual fires combined to damage 36% of the park, burning for several months. The scale of the disturbance is apparent in the following year's disturbance map. Less than 30% of the burned area re-gained forest cover by 2008. and the rate of recovery across Yellowstone has been quite variable, depending on the fire intensity and local conditions. Forests have always dealt with outbreaks of insects that can damage trees. Northern Colorado, near Rocky Mountain National Park, did not have severe damage from Mountain Pine Beetle before 2003. But the damage starts appearing in 2004 in low areas, and spreads to higher elevations over the next few years. Climage change might result in more frequent episodes and trees less able to withstand the stress, but this will vary from region to region. Forests are a dynamic ecosystem. And we need to know how fast they change and what is driving those changes if we ever hope to track how much carbon they're pulling out of the atmosphere and storing for us. The Landsat archive, and other remote sensing systems, provide the means to map and measure disturbance rates over the last 40 years.

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