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Rates with SN1 and SN2
 
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This video follows directly on from the SN1 and SN2 mechanisms video with SRA. It links how the rate determining step changes with each mechanism and how this can be used to demonstrate the fact that there are different mechanisms
Views: 1284 Beauchamp Chemistry
Rate Law For SN1 SN2 E1 and E2 Reaction - Potential Energy Diagram & Mechanism
 
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This chemistry video tutorial provides the rate law equation for SN1, SN2, E1, and E2 reactions. It also provides the mechanism as well as the potential energy diagrams that go along with it. The SN1 reaction is a first order nucleophilic substitution reaction where the rate depends on the concentration of the substrate only. In this example, a solvolysis reaction was used which occurs in 3 steps. The SN2 reaction is a single step concerted reaction mechanism and it's a second order nucleophilic substitution reaction where the rate depends on the concentration of the substrate and nucleophile. The E1 reaction is a first order elimination reaction where the rate depends on the substrate only. The E2 reaction is a second order elimination reaction where the rate depends on the concentration of the base and the substrate.
16.1 Reaction mechanism, order of reaction and rate-determining step [HL IB Chemistry]
 
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Rate = k [product of the reactants in the rate determining step] but it could be more complex - see the vid. Make sure that when you "add up" the mechanism it equals your initial given equation. Was the stair that Dr Atkinson demised on his personal "rate determining step"?
Views: 34682 Richard Thornley
Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions - SN1 and SN2 Mechanism, Organic Chemistry
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial explains how nucleophilic substitution reactions work. It focuses on the SN1 and Sn2 reaction mechanism and it provides plenty of examples and practice problems. The Sn2 reaction is a second order nucleophilic substitution reaction where the rate is dependent on the concentration of the substrate / alkyl halide and the nucleophile. SN2 reactions occur with inversion of configuration and work well with methyl and primary substrates. It's a concerted reaction mechanism that occurs in a single step. The rate law for the SN1 reaction is given as well. SN1 reactions proceed via a carbocation intermediate and carbocation rearrangements such as the hydride shift and the methyl shift are possible. SN1 reactions work well with tertiary alkyl halide substrates due to carbocation stability. Carbocations are stabilized by means of hyperconjugation and the inductive effect. SN1 reactions will produce an unequal racemic mixture. The stereochemistry of both reaction mechanisms are discussed in detail. SN1 reactions work well with polar protic solvents but SN2 reactions work better in polar aprotic solvents. Solvolysis reactions are sn1 reactions where the nucleophile is the same as the solvent.
SN1, SN2, E1, & E2 Reaction Mechanism Made Easy!
 
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This video shows you an easy way to identify if a reaction will undergo an SN1, SN2, E1, or E2 mechanism. SN1 reactions generate a racemic mixture of stereoisomers due to the planar structure of its carbocation. Both SN1 and E1 reactions can rearrange by means of a hydride shift or a methyl shift due to the formation of carbocation intermediate. There are no rearrangements for an SN2 and E2 reaction mechanism. Those reactions are concerted meaning they occur simultaneously in 1 step. SN2 reactions proceed with inversion of stereochemistry and E2 reactions proceed via an anti-coplanar transition state which means that the hydrogen that you remove must be opposite to the bromine before you can create an alkene. SN2 reactions prefer methyl & primary substrates. SN1 & E1 reactions prefer secondary and tertiary substrates. E2 requires the use of a strong base. Polar Protic Solvents favor SN1/E1 reactions because they can stabilize the carbocation intermediate by solvation. They're not good for SN2 reactions because they solvate/stabilize the nucleophile which affects the rate of an SN2 reactions (Rate = K[Substrate][Nucleophile]). SN1 reactions are not affected by the concentration or strength of the nucleophile due to the equation Rate = K[Substrate]. Polar aprotic solvents work well for an SN2 reaction because they do not solvate the nucleophile allowing to react freely with the substrate. Crown ethers enhance the strength of the nucleophile because they solvate the cation such as K+ allowing the nucleophile such as F- to be free to react. I hope these extra notes help :) New SN1 SN2 E1 E2 Video - Updated! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pKJ0z7N6W5w Organic Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5vjCqnVb6s&index=1&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BU3gxU8RwqkEET2ilZ80Znj Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
Determining the rate-determining step in reaction mechanism
 
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Determining the rate-determining step in reaction mechanism
Views: 1208 CK-12 Foundation
Sn1 reactions introduction
 
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Description More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=eB5NVPzBCzM
Views: 197953 Khan Academy
E1 reactions | Substitution and elimination reactions | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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E1 Elimination Reactions. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/substitution-elimination-reactions/elimination-reactions-tutorial/v/zaitsev-s-rule?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/substitution-elimination-reactions/elimination-reactions-tutorial/v/e2-reactions?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKPjijOc0WEJ7DIV_Vay3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 544998 Khan Academy
SN1 Reaction
 
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Why is SN2 a one-step reaction and SN1 a two-step reaction! Argh! Just listen to Dave, he'll tell you about the mechanism, intermediate, and lack of stereospecificity for the SN1 reaction. Look out for racemic mixtures! Learn Organic Chemistry the easy way with Professor Dave! Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://twitter.com/DaveExplains http://instagram.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
SN1 & SN2 - How to Determine ? Must for Class 12th Science Student.
 
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Much awaited "Capsule Course" . Most important Questions and Answers with solution class 12 board exams . http://www.chemistryvideolecture.com/services/ Subscribe followings for regular updates - Our You Tube channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0KVSqfFXm1y21qeL9-2S9Q facebook - https://www.facebook.com/pradeepsharma1010 Facebook page - https://www.facebook.com/PICSedusolutions/?ref=bookmarks website - https://picsinstitute.com/ PICS INSTITUTE provides Class room programme for IIT-JEE | AIPMT | CBSE \ XI | XII . PICS INSTITUTE provides #Free education for the subject #Chemistry for #NTSE ,#NSTSE,#KVPY, #Science Olympiad and School exams etc. #Students can get exercise based upon this law by subscribing our you tube channel and sending request in comment section.
Views: 113231 Pradeep Sharma
SN2 vs SN1 Chart - Examples & Practice Problems
 
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SN2 vs SN1 Chart - This video discusses the difference between an SN2 and SN1 reaction. This video provides the mechanism as well as plenty of practice problems. SN2 reactions prefer polar aprotic solvents such as crown ethers, acetone, DMF, and HMPA while SN1 reactions prefer polar protic solvents like H2O, CH3OH, or CH3CH2OH. tertiary substrates or alkyl halides work best for an SN1 reaction but primary or methyl substrates work better for an SN2 reaction. The SN2 is a one step concerted reaction mechanism process but the SN1 reaction may occur in 2 or 3 steps depending on the nucleophile chosen. Carbocation rearrangements may occur for an SN1 reaction but for an SN2 mechanism. SN2 reactions proceed with inversion of stereochemistry but SN1 reactions provides an unequal racemic mixture of products which is both inversion and retention.
SN1 Reaction
 
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This topic explains the reaction mechanism of SN1 Reaction, Thermodynamics of carbocation formation, Free energy diagram for SN₁ reaction, Rate determining step and Ease of SN₁ reaction. This is a product of Mexus Education Pvt. Ltd., an education innovations company based in Mumbai, India. http://www.mexuseducation.com, http://www.ikenstore.in
Views: 1502 Iken Edu
Mechanisms and the rate-determining step | Kinetics | Chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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An introduction to mechanisms and the rate determining step. Example of finding rate law of multistep reaction with initial slow step. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chem-kinetics/arrhenius-equation/v/catalysts?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/chem-kinetics/arrhenius-equation/v/elementary-rate-laws?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyEot66LrwWFEMONvrIBh3A?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
How do we predict if the mechanism is SN1 or SN2
 
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How can we tell which mechanism to use? This question will get more complicated unfortunately, but for now we can use the following factors to answer this question. Watch more of this topic at ► http://bit.ly/28JdPPZ Download this PDF: http://bit.ly/28JPnwk GET MORE CLUTCH! VISIT our website for more of the help you need: http://bit.ly/28Itwbp SUBSCRIBE for new videos: http://cltch.us/1axA33X --- LET'S CONNECT! Facebook: http://cltch.us/1JLgiSZ Twitter: http://cltch.us/1NLcKpu Instagram: http://cltch.us/1If5pb7 Google+: http://cltch.us/1E34o85 Clutch Prep = Textbook specific videos to help you pass your toughest science classes.
Views: 9857 Clutch Prep
Suggesting a mechanism with rate determining step
 
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A quick video showing how you come up with a possible mechanism for a multi step reaction using the rate expression. Avoid those pitfalls. Don't let the exam beat you.
Views: 16555 Allery Chemistry
16.1 Rate-determining step (HL)
 
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Understandings: Reactions may occur by more than one step and the slowest step determines the rate of reaction (rate determining step/RDS).
Views: 6016 Mike Sugiyama Jones
SN1 Reaction Mechanism
 
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SN1 Reaction involves: * Leaving Group "falls off" of the secondary/tertiary carbon * Trigonal Planar carbocation intermediate * Nucleophile attacks and bonds. You get a 50/50 mix of enantiomers (if you care) It's called SN1 because it's a Nucleophilic Substitution and it's unimolecular - the first step (of two) involves ONE chemical breaking apart into two. Check me out: http://www.chemistnate.com
Views: 1240 chemistNATE
sn1 and sn2 reaction mechanism in hindi
 
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Follow me on unacademy for upcoming courses- https://unacademy.com/user/krishnaaakash2 modern physics and wave video link- https://unacademy.com/lesson/course-overview-in-hindi/HI9ULWHQ aiims 2018 important question link- https://unacademy.com/course/aiims-and-jee-advance-physics-crash-course/0D0LUJDE neet 2018 solution link- https://unacademy.com/course/hindi-neet-2018-coderr-solution-chemistry-and-physics/3B055A7F general organic chemistry link- https://unacademy.com/course/hindi-general-organic-chemistry-839/9C1EV5QQ
Views: 143902 Aakash krishna
SN1 Reactions | University Of Surrey
 
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Rate determining step - SN1 reactions. A-Level Chemistry teaching/revision resource
Views: 137796 University of Surrey
Comparing E2 E1 Sn2 Sn1 Reactions
 
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Comparing E2 E1 Sn2 Sn1 Reactions More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=12Rvts2NR7M
Views: 876361 Khan Academy
Sn1 mechanism: kinetics and substrate
 
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Mechanism and rate law for Sn1 reactions.
Substitution Nucleophilic Reaction-SN1 reaction
 
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The SN1 reaction is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry. "SN" stands for nucleophilic substitution and the "1" represents the fact that the rate-determining step is unimolecular.Thus, the rate equation is often shown as having first-order dependence on electrophile and zero-order dependence on nucleophile. This relationship holds for situations where the amount of nucleophile is much greater than that of the carbocation intermediate. Instead, the rate equation may be more accurately described using steady-state kinetics. The reaction involves a carbocation intermediate and is commonly seen in reactions of secondary or tertiary alkyl halides under strongly basic conditions or, under strongly acidic conditions, with secondary or tertiary alcohols. With primary alkyl halides, the alternative SN2 reaction occurs. In inorganic chemistry, the SN1 reaction is often known as the dissociative mechanism. This dissociation pathway is well-described by the cis effect. A reaction mechanism was first proposed by Christopher Ingold et al. in 1940. This reaction does not depend much on the strength of the nucleophile unlike the SN2 mechanism.
Views: 749 PharmaToppers
SN1 Reaction - STEP BY STEP (English subtitles)
 
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Full SN1 reaction described in a fast, simple and complete way.
Views: 487 EASY LEARNING
SN1 reaction
 
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The SN1 reaction is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry. "SN" stands for nucleophilic substitution and the "1" represents the fact that the rate-determining step is unimolecular. Thus, the rate equation is often shown as having first-order dependence on electrophile and zero-order dependence on nucleophile. This relationship holds for situations where the amount of nucleophile is much greater than that of the carbocation intermediate. Instead, the rate equation may be more accurately described using steady-state kinetics. The reaction involves a carbocation intermediate and is commonly seen in reactions of secondary or tertiary alkyl halides under strongly basic conditions or, under strongly acidic conditions, with secondary or tertiary alcohols. With primary alkyl halides, the alternative SN2 reaction occurs. In inorganic chemistry, the SN1 reaction is often known as the dissociative mechanism. This dissociation pathway is well-described by the cis effect. A reaction mechanism was first proposed by Christopher Ingold et al. in 1940. This reaction does not depend much on the strength of the nucleophile unlike the SN2 mechanism. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 129 Audiopedia
Potential Energy Diagrams - Chemistry - Catalyst, Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions
 
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This chemistry video tutorial focuses on potential energy diagrams for endothermic and exothermic reactions. It also shows the effect of a catalyst on the forward and reverse activation energy. It describes the relationship of the enthalpy of a reaction with the potential energy difference of the reactants and products. It also shows you how to identify the transition state or activated complex as well as any intermediates. This video shows you how to draw a 2 step PE diagram and a 3 step potential energy diagram. In addition, it shows you how to identify the slow step or the rate determining step.
Neighbouring Group Participation | Tricks and Tech | IIT-Jee Mains, Advance | BITSAT | NEET & AIIMS
 
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Neighbouring Group Participation (NGP) is observed in nucleophilic substitution reactions, where a neighbouring group helps in the removal of the leaving group to form a reactive intermediate that leads to the formation of the product. Increase in the reaction rate and unexpected stereo chemical outcomes are associated in reactions involving NGP. An atom having an unshared pair of electrons and also present at least beta to the leaving group can act as a neighbouring group. Also, NGP is mostly observed on solvolysis reactions where the solvent acts as the nucleophile. During NGP, the neighbouring group (G) attacks the electrophilic centre to eliminate the leaving group (L). This leads to the formation of a cyclic intermediate which is very reactive. This is called anchimeric assistance from the neighbouring group. The nucleophile (Nu-)then attacks this intermediate to form the product. If the attack happens of the carbon that was having the leaving group the configuration will be retained because the configuration at that carbon will be inverted twice. Groups like halides, hydroxides, ethers, thio ethers, amino groups, carboxylates, phenyl group, pi-bonds etc. have been indentified to act as neighbouring groups in many reactions. The mechanism for anchimeric assistance is a two step mechanism where two consecutive SN2 reaction leads to retention of configuration. In the first step, the neighbouring group (Z) acts as a nucleophile, attacking the substitution centre and expelling out the leaving group. In the next step, the external nucleophile (Y) attack from backside displacing the neighbouring group and retaining the overall configuration. Since the first step is slow and is rate determining, the reaction follows first order kinetics and there is no effect of concentration of Y- on rate of reaction. Anchimeric assistance enhances rate of reactions by several order of magnitudes. This is because step I is the rate determining step and the neighbouring group Z which is readily available within the substrate makes the attack much faster as compared to attack by any external nucleophile Y for which, to react, the substrate has to collide with Y. Since, Z is readily available by virtue of its position its attack is much faster. Thermodynamically also, anchimeric assistance is favoured as the reaction between the substrate and Y- involves a large decrease in entropy of activation (∆S†), as the reactants are far less free in the transition state than before. Reaction of Z involves a much smaller loss of entropy. Important atoms and groups that can act as neighbouring groups are COO, COOR, COAr, OCOR, OR, OH, O, NH2, NHR, NR2, NHCOR, SH, SR, S, SO2Ph, I, Br, and Cl. The effectiveness of halogens as neighbouring groups decreases in the order I ,,Br, Cl. The chloride is a very weak neighbouring group and can be shown to act in this way only when the solvent does not interfere. Thanks Team IITian explains
Views: 14726 IITian explains
SN1 Of Alkyl Halide (R-X) Example | CHEMISTRY | JEE | NEET | IIT | By Chintan Sir
 
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Please watch: "Chemistry Physics New website Launch | CHEMISTRY | NEET | JEE | By Chintan Sir" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wKFxRixiKB8 --~-- The SN1 reaction is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry. "SN" stands for nucleophilic substitution and the "1" represents the fact that the rate-determining step is unimolecular.[1][2] Thus, the rate equation is often shown as having first-order dependence on electrophile and zero-order dependence on nucleophile. This relationship holds for situations where the amount of nucleophile is much greater than that of the carbocation intermediate. Instead, the rate equation may be more accurately described using steady-state kinetics. The reaction involves a carbocation intermediate and is commonly seen in reactions of secondary or tertiary alkyl halides under strongly basic conditions or, under strongly acidic conditions, with secondary or tertiary alcohols. With primary and secondary alkyl halides, the alternative SN2 reaction occurs. In inorganic chemistry, the SN1 reaction is often known as the dissociative mechanism. This dissociation pathway is well-described by the cis effect. A reaction mechanism was first proposed by Christopher Ingold et al. in 1940.[3] This reaction does not depend much on the strength of the nucleophile unlike the SN2 mechanism. This type of mechanism involves two steps. The first step is the reversible ionization of Alkyl halide in the presence of aqueous acetone or an aqueous ethyl alcohol. This step provides a carbocation as an intermediate. In the second step this carbocation is attacked by the nucleophile to form the product.
SN1 SN2 E1 E2 Reaction Mechanism Overview
 
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http://leah4sci.com/substitution-elimination presents: SN1 SN2 E1 E2 Reactions Mechanism Overview Need help with Orgo? Download my free guide ’10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry’ HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ This video will give you a quick overview/review of the individual reactions and mechanisms of SN1, SN2, E1, & E2 to prepare you for the detailed tutorials on how to logically choose between these reactions. This is great to watch as an overview before diving in, review in daily study, or review before quizzes/exams. Links & Resources Mentioned In This Video: Find the entire Tutorial Series + Try the Practice Quiz HERE: http://Leah4Sci.com/substitution-elimination Catch the entire Nucleophilic Substitution and Beta Elimination Video Tutorials in Organic Chemistry Series, along with practice quiz on my website at http://leah4sci.com/substitution-elimination For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/ Finally, for questions and comments, find me on social media here: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Leah4Sci Twitter: https://twitter.com/Leah4Sci Google+ : https://plus.google.com/u/0/+LeahFisch Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/leah4sci/
Views: 126825 Leah4sci
factors affecting sn1 nucleophilic substitution reactions
 
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What factors affect nucleophilic substitution unimolecular Sn1 reactions? I.1) Effect of the Leaving Group I.2) Effect of the Nucleophile I.3) Effect of Carbocation and Carbocation rearrangements I.4) Substituent effects Subsribe to Chemistry_Net: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCRHkadk8a3zbg7RsKYwcuHw?view_as=public Relevant Video: https://youtu.be/9sgCMxFtvHk These factors are explained in this video-tutorial and their effects to the rate of reactions and the structure of the products is presented. I.1) Effect of the Leaving Group The mechanism of the SN1 reactions - derived from experimental facts - shows that the rate-determining step is the dissociation of the alkyl halide (or alcohol) to form a carbocation. The ease with which the leaving group dissociates from the carbon affects the rate of SN1 reactions. The weaker the base, the less tightly it is bonded to the carbon and the easier it is to break the bond. As a result, an alkyl iodide is the most reactive and an alkyl fluoride is the least reactive of the alkyl halides, as substrates, in SN1 reactions. Iodide ion is less basic than fluoride ion therefore a better leaving group. The relative reactivities of alkyl halides as substrates in SN1 reactions is shown below: RI RBr RCl RF reactivity decreases from left to right I.2) Effect of the Nucleophile The nucleophile reacts with the carbocation. The carbocation is formed in the rate-determining step and affects the rate of the SN1 reaction. Stable carbocations -tertiary- are formed faster than weaker carbocations -primary- and react with the nucleophile to form products. The nucleophile though comes into play after the rate-determining step. Therefore, the reactivity of the nucleophile has no effect on the rate of an SN1. In most SN1 reactions, the solvent is the nucleophile. These reactions are called solvolysis. The nucleophiles that are used more often in SN1 reactions are “soft nucleophiles” with the following characteristics: large, neutral, not-basic, like to attack saturated carbon. As examples can be given: I-, R3P, RS-, CH3O- I.3) Effect of Carbocation and Carbocation rearrangements Stable carbocations are formed faster than less stable since the energy requirement ΔG is lower. Therefore, tertiary bromides are expected to react faster in an SN1 type reaction than primary bromides since when ionize give tertiary cations that are more stable and are produced faster than primary. https://youtu.be/zycKmXW3n-c I.4) Substituent effects Compounds of the formula ZCH2X, where Z = RO, RS, or R2N undergo SN1 reactions very rapidly, because of the increased resonance in the carbocation. These groups have an unshared pair on an atom directly attached to the positive carbon, which stabilizes the carbocation. The field effects of these groups would be expected to decrease SN1 rates, so the resonance effect is far more important. When Z in ZCH2X is RCO, HCO, ROCO, NH2CO, NC, or F3C, SN1 rates are decreased compared to CH3X, owing to the electron-withdrawing field. References R. Bruckner, “Advanced Organic Chemistry – Reaction Mechanisms”, 2nd Edition, Elsevier, 2002 (http://www.amazon.com/Advanced-Organic-Chemistry-Reaction-Mechanisms /dp/0121381102#reader_0121381102) M.B. Smith & J. March “March’s Advanced Organic Chemistry”, 6th Edition, Wiley-Interscience, 2007 http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470462590.html M.B. Smith & J. March “March’s Advanced Organic Chemistry”, 6th Edition, Wiley-Interscience, 2007
Views: 1927 Chemistry_Net
SN1 Reaction Rate and Mechanism - Unimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Part 1
 
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http://leah4sci.com/substitution-elimination presents: SN1 Reaction (video 1 of 3) Reaction, Rate and Mechanism for Unimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Are you struggling with organic chemistry? Download my free ebook "10 Secrets To Acing Organic Chemistry" here: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ Many students attempt to memorize substitution and elimination reactions and find themselves unable to differentiate between SN1 SN2 E1 E2 reactions when faced with a starting molecule and set of chemical conditions This video series is designed to help you break down every aspect of these reactions in order to build a solid knowledge base allowing you to approach reactions in a logical manner for simple solutions You can find the entire Sub/Elim series on my website: http://leah4sci.com/substitution-elimination If you enjoy the video please like comment and share I also offer private online tutoring. Details: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/ http://youtu.be/OopqmYnQLyQ
Views: 75414 Leah4sci
Rate Determining Step | A-level Chemistry | OCR, AQA, Edexcel
 
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https://goo.gl/syotb7 to unlock the full series of AS, A2 & A-level Chemistry videos created by A* students for the new OCR, AQA and Edexcel specification. This video will focus on: Rate-determining step analogy, Rate determining step, Reaction mechanisms from rate equation, Hydrolysis of chloromethane, Proposing Reaction Mechanism, Validity of Reaction Mechanisms, Exam Questions, Summary.
Views: 325 SnapRevise
Why highly substituted leaving groups favor SN1
 
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The slow step of this mechanism is the formation of a carbocation intermediate. These types of intermediates are unstable, so anything that we can do to stabilize them will help them form faster. Watch more of this topic at ► http://bit.ly/28IttMF GET MORE CLUTCH! VISIT our website for more of the help you need: http://bit.ly/28JPcRS SUBSCRIBE for new videos: http://cltch.us/1axA33X --- LET'S CONNECT! Facebook: http://cltch.us/1JLgiSZ Twitter: http://cltch.us/1NLcKpu Instagram: http://cltch.us/1If5pb7 Google+: http://cltch.us/1E34o85 Clutch Prep = Textbook specific videos to help you pass your toughest science classes.
Views: 8388 Clutch Prep
10.2 Nucleophilic Substitution [SL IB Chemistry]
 
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You only need to know OH- is a nucleophile (attracted to postivie charge). This will swap with the halogen in a haloalkane.
Views: 5945 Richard Thornley
Sn1 reactions intro
 
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Views: 89523 Khan Academy
SUBSTITUTION NUCLEOPHILIC REACTION. WHAT IS SN1 AND SN2 REACTION?(BENGALI)
 
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The SN2 reaction is a type of reaction mechanism that is common in organic chemistry. In this mechanism, one bond is broken and one bond is formed synchronously, i.e., in one step. SN2 is a kind of nucleophilic substitution reaction mechanism. Since two reacting species are involved in the slow (rate-determining) step, this leads to the term substitution nucleophilic (bi-molecular) or SN2, the other major kind is SN1.[1] Many other more specialized mechanisms describe substitution reactions. The reaction type is so common that it has other names, e.g. "bimolecular nucleophilic substitution", or, among inorganic chemists, "associative substitution" or "interchange mechanism". The SN1 reaction is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry. "SN" stands for nucleophilic substitution and the "1" represents the fact that the rate-determining step is unimolecular.[1][2] Thus, the rate equation is often shown as having first-order dependence on electrophile and zero-order dependence on nucleophile. This relationship holds for situations where the amount of nucleophile is much greater than that of the carbocation intermediate. Instead, the rate equation may be more accurately described using steady-state kinetics. The reaction involves a carbocation intermediate and is commonly seen in reactions of secondary or tertiary alkyl halides under strongly basic conditions or, under strongly acidic conditions, with secondary or tertiary alcohols. With primary and secondary alkyl halides, the alternative SN2 reaction occurs. In inorganic chemistry, the SN1 reaction is often known as the dissociative mechanism. This dissociation pathway is well-described by the cis effect. A reaction mechanism was first proposed by Christopher Ingold et al. in 1940.[3] This reaction does not depend much on the strength of the nucleophile unlike the SN2 mechanism. This type of mechanism involves two steps. The first step is the reversible ionization of Alkyl halide in the presence of aqueous acetone or an aqueous ethyl alcohol. This step provides a carbocation as an intermediate. In the second step this carbocation is attacked by the nucleophile to form the product.
Views: 103 SOUMIK'S BIOLOGY
Simply Mechanisms 4c: SN2. Reaction of bromoethane with NH3
 
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Top Tutors for all Subjects at all Levels here: https://spires.co/franklychemistry Find an accompanying mindmap here: http://franklychemistry.co.uk/simply_mechanisms/8_Simply_Mechanisms4_Haloalkanes_NH3.pdf This looks at the mechanism of the reaction of bromoethane with ammonia. Known as SN2 for short, this stands for substitution nucleophilic second order. Bromoethane is a primary haloalkane. They undergo SN2 reactions with the :NH3 nucleophile. In SN2 both the haloalkane molecule and :NH3 nucleophile are involved in the slow rate-determining step. It is known as a bimolecular reaction, where is where the 2 comes from in SN2.
Views: 1948 FranklyChemistry
Sn2 mechanism: kinetics and substrate
 
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The mechanism, rate law, and stereochemistry of Sn2 reactions. How the sterics of the alkyl halide affect the reaction rate.
Nucleophilic Substitution | Sn1 Reaction | Sn2 Reaction | Substitution Reactions | Sn2 Mechanism
 
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Mechanisam is the two limiting mechanisms of nucleophilic aliphatic substitution at saturated carbon and the SN1-mechanisam is worked on the principle of rate law, an SN1 reaction is first order overall, and the concentration of the nucleophile does not affect the rate.a nd The implication is that the nucleophile does not participate in the rate limiting step or any prior steps.for example The C-Cl bond in the halogenoalkane starts to lengthen and weaken,then The chloride ion is eventually detached from the carbon atom and a flat carbocation forms.
Views: 187 Gtek
Super Trick for Sn1 v/s Sn2 -IITJEE|NEET concepts | Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction Mechanism
 
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Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction Mechanism and Differences of SN1, SN2 and SNi | by Prof Chary Smith, Ph D (IICT), PDF (Japan) --------------------- Please SUBSCRIBE Venus Academy for FREE: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCW3eA2uybXR_3tWVX7vsEBQ/featured; --------------------- Next Ch2-P4/4: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lXhaodTWyM&t=1148s; Grignard Reaction - Addition Reactions - Elimination Reactions - Pericyclic Reactions - Ch 2 - P4/4 --------------------- Chapter-I: Structure of Organic Molecules 1. Introduction to Organic Chemistry - How to know SP, SP2, SP3 Hybridization – Chapter 1 – Part 1 of 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ckUfVYyvnxQ 2. How Bond Length is Affected by Electronegativity and Hybridization - 5 Easy Tricks – Chapter 1- Part 2 of 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hb6bipo172Y 3. How SP, SP2, SP3 Hybridization affects - Bond angle and bond energy - 5 Easy Tips - Chapter 1 – Part 3 of 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=swUbaArekK8 --------------------- Chapter-II: Reaction Mechanism and Reactivity of Organic Molecules. 4. What and How Formed Electrophiles and Nucleophiles - Reagents in Organic Synthesis- Chapter 2 - Part 1 of 4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYFHQ6NspDA 5. Friedel Crafts alkylation, acylation - Nitration - Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution -Chapter 2 - Part 2 of 4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lK1cEhzIoyk 6. What are the Differences of SN1 vs SN2 - Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction Mechanism – Chapter 2 – Part 3 of 4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-3RL3Wk69U 7. Grignard Reaction - Addition Reactions - Elimination Reactions - Pericyclic Reactions – Chapter 2 – Part 4 of 4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lXhaodTWyM --------------------- Chapter-III: Electronic Displacement 8. How Acidity and Basicity Affected by Inductive Effect - Interview Organic Chemistry –Chapter 3 – Part 1 of 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5NdAFozMM38 9. Mesomeric Effect | Why Allylic Carbocation More Stable than Alkyl | Chapter 3 - Part 2 of 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_3aZlLfO1g 10. Hyperconjugation | Keto Enol Tautomerism | Interview Organic Chemistry Tips | Chapter 3 - Part 3 of 3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LzAGGNxWu4c --------------------- Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions - SN1 (Unimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction - SN2 Bimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction - SNi Intramolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction - Reaction Mechanism and Reactivity of Organic Molecules - Chapter 2 - Part 3 of 4. 5 - Questions? And 12 Differences of SN1 and SN2 are Answered - Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions - SN1, SN2 and SNi – Interview Organic Chemistry. 1. Question: What is and what happens in SN1 Reaction Mechanism and how to write arrow mark? Answer: SN1 – Unimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction mechanism involves 2 stages and rate of the reaction depends on concentration of Reactant and gives Racemic mixture. In Nucleophilic Substitution reactions arrow mark must be shown from reagent nucelophile to reactant. 2. Question: What is and what happens in SN2 Reaction Mechanism? Answers: SN2 – Bimolecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction mechanism involves only 1 stage and rate of the reaction depends on concentration of Reactant and Reagent and gives inversion of configuration. 3. Question: What is and what happens in SNi Reaction Mechanism? Answer: SNi – Intra-molecular Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction results retention of configuration. 4. Question: What happens to stereo isomers R and S in SN1, SN2 and SNi type of reactions? Answer: 1. in SN1 reaction Racemisation takes place and - R isomer - gives - R + S racemic mixture. 2. In SN2 reaction Walden Inversion takes place - R isomer - gives - S isomer -Walden inversion . 3. In SNi reaction retention of configuration takes place - R isomer - gives - R isomer retention of configuration. 5. Question: What are differences between SN1 and SN2 reactions? Answer: There are mainly 12 differences are observed between SN1 and SN2 , they are: SN1 SN2 1. Takes place in tertiary alkyl halides 1. Primary alkyl halide 2. Two steps 2. Only one step 3. 1st slow and rate determining step 3. Only one step 4. Rate is α to concentration of alkyl halide 4. Rate is α to concentration of alkyl halide × alkali 5. Unimolecular 5. Bimolecular 6. Non-concerted 6. Concerted 7. Independent of concentration of alkali 7. Dependent on concentration of both 8. Carbo-cation intermediate is formed 8. Takes place via only transition state 9. Racemic mixture is formed provided reactant is chiral 9. Walden inversion takes place provided reactant is chiral 10. Favorable in protic solvents such as water, formic acid 10. Favorable in aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sufoxide, dimethylformamide, etc. 11. Order of reactivity: tertiary secondary primary 11. Order of reactivity: primary secondary tertiary 12. Rearrangement may takes place 12. No rearrangement takes place
Views: 312 Venus Academy
PCAT Organic Chemistry Review Study Guide
 
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This video tutorial focuses on the organic chemistry section of the PCAT. It provides a nice review of the first two semesters of organic chemistry. Here is a list of topics: 1. Nomenclature and Functional Groups 2. Hybridization, Bond Angle, and Molecular Geometry 3. Sigma and Pi Bonds, Bond Strength vs Length 4. Acids and Bases Periodic Trend - pKa 5. Resonance Structures - Curve Arrow Notation 6. Newman Projections of Butane - Gauche, Anti, Staggered, Eclipse 7. Conformations of Cyclohexane - Chair, Half Chair, Twist Boat 8. Torsional vs Steric Strain and 1,3 Diaxial Interactions 9. Potential Energy Diagrams - Kinetics and Rate Law 10. Catalyst, Activation Energy, Rate Determining Step 11. Initiation, Propagation, and Termination 12. Bromination vs Chlorination Selective vs Nonselective Reactions 13. Stereochemistry - Enantiomers, Diastereomers, and Meso Compounds - R / S Configuration, Chirality and Optical Activity 14. Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes 15. Acid Catalyzed Hydration, Hydroboration Oxidation, Oxymercuration Demercuration, and Ozonolysis 16. SN2, SN1, E1, and E2 reaction mechanism 17. Polar protic vs aprotic solvents - Nucleophiles and Leaving Groups 18. Inversion of Configuration vs Racemic Mixture 19. Oxidation and Reduction Reaction of Alcohols 20. Grignard & Gilman Reagents, DIBAH and Organolithium reagents 21. conjugate addition - 1,3 butadiene - Kinetic vs Thermodynamic Product 22. Diels Alder Reaction - Examples and Practice Problems 23. Acid Catalyzed Cleavage of Ethers and Epoxides 24. Nucleophilic Addition of Carbonyl Compounds - Aldehydes and Ketones 25. Enol and Enolate Reactions - Alpha Hydrogen Substitution 26. Wittig Reaction, HVZ Reaction, Haloform Reaction 27. Iodoform Test - Methyl Ketones 28. Tollen's Reagent Test for Aldehydes 29. Imine vs Enamine - Primary and Secondary Amines 30. Gabriel Synthesis Reaction 31. Hoffman vs Curtius Rearrangement Reactions 32. Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Review 33. Benzene Reactions - Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions 34. Nitration, Sulfonation, Chlorination, Bromination, Friedel Crafts Alkylation and Acylation Reactions 35. Side Chain Reactions of Benzene 36. Benzyne Intermediate vs Meisenheimer Complex 37. Aldol Condensation Reaction 38. Claisen Ester Reaction 39. Acetoacetic and Malonic ester Reaction Mechanism 40. Michael Reaction 41. Robinson Annulation Reaction Mechanism
Sn2 and Sn1 reactions practice test with answers
 
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A practice test with answers regarding nucleophilic substitution reactions Sn2 and Sn1 is shown in this video-tutorial. The main topics covered in this video-tutorial are the following: i) Examples regarding SN2 and SN1 reactions ii) Solution to the Examples iii) Explanation why the reaction goes SN2 or SN1 iv) If both reactions occur what the major products are and what their stereochemistry https://youtu.be/HwukezF9r_w Example 1: Consider the reaction of t-butyl chloride with iodide ion. If the concentration of iodide ion is doubled, the rate of forming t-butyl iodide will: i) double ii) increase 4 times iii) remains the same iv) decrease Solution Example 1: The reaction is SN1 since the leaving group – chloride ion – is attached to a tertiary carbon atom. In SN1 reaction, the rate is independent of the nucleophile involved since the nucleophile is not involved in the rate determining step. The rate determining step is the breakage of the C – leaving group bond and the formation of the corresponding carbocation. Therefore: Rate = k * [t-butyl chloride] The correct answer is (iii) Example 2: Which of the following alkyl halides would undergo SN2 reaction most rapidly? i)CH3CH2Br ii) CH3CH2Cl iii) CH3CH2I iv) CH3CH2F Solution to Example 2: The reaction is SN2 since the leaving group is attached to a primary carbon atom. In SN2 reaction, the nucleophile attacks from the back of the leaving group. The better the leaving group, the easier it is to leave and the faster the rate. Iodide ion is the best leaving group and therefore the correct answer is (iii). An approximate order of leaving groups is shown below. Example 3: Predict which of the following carbocations has the highest energy. Would this carbocation undergo an SN1 reaction more rapidly than the others? Solution to Example 3: Higher energy means less stable carbocation. Primary carbocations are less stable than secondary and tertiary. Therefore the correct answer is (i). This carbocation would be less reactive to a substitution according to the SN1 mechanism since more energy is required for its formation. Remember that in an SN1 reaction the rate determining step is formation of the carbocation. For the relevant theory please see the following videos: https://youtu.be/prguSDSYLhE https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLGEE3kLOMCp4IWrA61v7OVsP9WIrdGR_c Subsribe to Chemistry_Net: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCRHkadk8a3zbg7RsKYwcuHw?view_as=public For more info please see: http://chem-net.blogspot.com/ http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/vrchemistry/iom/SNQuiz/default.htm
Views: 329 Chemistry_Net
Promoting Factors and Characteristics of Substitution Reactions in Organic Chemistry
 
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The substitution mechanism in organic chemistry takes place between an electrophile bearing a leaving group and a nucleophile that supplies the electrons to form the new bond. The rate limiting step in substitution can occur by two methods: unimolecular or bimolecular. In an SN1 mechanism the substrate bearing the leaving group undergoes ionization to a carbocation and an anionic leaving group. In the SN2 mechanism the nucleophile and electrophile must collide therefore the kinetics are bimolecular. This screen cast discusses the promoting factors of nucleophile strength, substrate classification, solvent, and leaving group ability. Additional characteristics of kinetics, stereochemistry and rearrangements are discussed. If you found this screencast helpful, please leave a comment and subscribe to the OChem Lounge for additional organic chemistry topics.
Views: 24 Matthew Donahue
How To Identify The Intermediate & Catalyst In a Reaction Mechanism - Kinetics Chemistry
 
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This chemistry video tutorial explains how to identify the intermediate and the catalyst in a reaction mechanism. It's important to understand that the intermediate and the catalyst do not show up in the overall reaction mechanism. The catalyst is present at the beginning and shows up at the end. It appears first on the left side and then reappears on the right side. The intermediate appears on the right side and then shows up on the left side later. The intermediate is produced first and then consumed later. This tutorial contains 2 example problems for you to learn this concept. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/
16.1 Mechansim and Rate Determing Step [HL IB Chemistry]
 
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Rate Determining Step: Many reactions have several steps and these are called the Reaction Mechanism. The slowest step in a mechanism will determine the overall speed and is therefore called the "rate determining step". The position of this step in the mechanism is unimportant -- it can come first, last or in the middle. This slow step will have the highest activation energy of all the steps.
Views: 22445 Richard Thornley
Sn1 reaction: Mechanism | Substitution and elimination reactions | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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How an Sn1 reaction takes place. Created by Jay. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/substitution-elimination-reactions/sn1-sn2-tutorial/v/sn1-reaction-stereochemistry?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/substitution-elimination-reactions/sn1-sn2-tutorial/v/alkyl-halide-nomenclature?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKPjijOc0WEJ7DIV_Vay3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
video 17-5
 
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Reaction Mechanism; Reaction Rates; Rate Laws; Rate Determining Step
Views: 11 Daryl Fukuda
Nucleophilic Substitution Mechanism
 
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Using the reaction between bromoethane and hydroxide ions
Views: 3777 MaChemGuy
Organic Chemistry - Reaction Mechanisms
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into reaction mechanisms. It explains the four fundamental reactions such as addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, and rearrangements. Here is a list of topics: 1. Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Alkenes 2. Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Ketones 3. Carbocation Rearrangements and Ring Expansion Examples 4. SN2 SN1 E1 and E2 Reaction Mechanisms 5. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions 6. Elimination Reactions 7. E1CB Reaction 8. Free Radical Reactions - Radical Substitution Mechanism 9. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions 10. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions 11. Addition Elimination Reaction Mechanism 12. Elimination Addition Reaction Mechanism Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEWpbFLzoYGPfuWUMFPSaoA?sub_confirmation=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ New Organic Chemistry Playlist https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6unef5Hz6SU&index=1&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BXP7TUO7656wg0uF1xYnwgm&t=0s
Nucleophilic Substitution, Halogenoalkane Mechanism - Organic Chem
 
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In this video we want to describe the nucleophilic substitution mechanism of halogenoalkanes or alkylhalides. There are 2 different pathways for nucleophilic substitution. SN1 Mechanism SN1 mechanism is a two step reaction. In the first step, which is the slow step, the C-Cl bond will break by itself and both electrons will go to Cl. A carbocation intermediate and Cl- ion will be formed. In the second step, which is the fast step, OH- will attack the carbocation forming the alcohol product. Based on the mechanism, we can deduce the rate equation. In the slow step, there is only one halogenoalkane, hence the rate is first order with respect to halogenoalkane and zero order with respect to hydroxide. Therefore the rate equation will be: rate = k[RX] The overall order is one, hence we call this the SN1 mechanism. Tertiary halides will favour SN1 as more electron donating alkyl groups can stabilise the carbocation intermediate to a greater extent. Therefore the carbocation is more likely formed, and this in turn favours SN1 mechanism. SN2 Mechanism SN2 mechanism is a one step reaction. The OH- nucleophile will attack the carbon from directly behind the C-Cl bond. In this step the C-O bond is formed while the C-Cl bond is broken. Usually in schools we are required to draw the transition state, which emphasises that the OH, C and Cl groups are along the same axis. Since this is the only step in SN2, it must be the rate determining step. One halogenoalkane and one OH- are involved, hence the rate is first order with respect to both halogenoalkane and OH-. Therefore the rate equation will be: rate = k[RX][OH-] The overall order is two, hence we call this the SN2 mechanism. Primary halides will favour SN2 as there are less bulky alkyl groups. This means that the nucleophilic attack from directly behind the C-X bond will experience less steric hinderance. This makes the back door attack occur more readily and hence favours SN2 mechanism. For the detailed step-by-step discussion on how to draw both SN1 and SN2 mechanisms, check out this video! Topic: Halogenoalkane, Organic Chemistry, A Level Chemistry, Singapore Found this video useful? Please LIKE this video and SHARE it with your friends! SUBSCRIBE to my YouTube Channel for new A Level Chemistry video lessons every week at https://www.youtube.com/ChemistryGuru Any feedback, comments or questions to clarify? Suggestions for new video lessons? Drop them in the COMMENTS Section, I would love to hear from you! Need an experienced A Level Chemistry tutor to boost your grades? Check out the SEVEN reasons why Chemistry Guru can provide the best A Level Chemistry Tuition for you: WEBSITE: https://chemistryguru.com.sg/ -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch my latest video: "Ideal Gas Graph Sketching" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G4_PSne7kE0 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Elementary Rate Laws - Unimolecular, Bimolecular and Termolecular Reactions - Chemical Kinetics
 
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This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into elementary reactions and elementary rate laws. It explains the difference between unimolecular, bimolecular, and Termolecular reactions. An elementary reaction is one in which the rate law can be written from the coefficients of the balanced chemical equation and agrees with empirical data. A unimolecular reaction is a reaction that can proceed using a single molecule. A bimolecular reaction is one in which two molecules must collide in order to react. Termolecular reactions require the collision of three molecules. New Chemistry Video Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bka20Q9TN6M&t=25s&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BWziAvOKdqsMFSB_MyyLAqS&index=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/

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