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Search results “Determining intravascular vs extravascular hemolysis bilirubin”
QUICK INTERNAL MED: Extravascular Vs Intravascular Hemolysis
 
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Views: 14343 allornonelaw
Haptoglobin
 
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Haptoglobin (abbreviated as Hp) is the protein that in humans is encoded by the HP gene. In blood plasma, haptoglobin binds free hemoglobin (Hb) released from erythrocytes with high affinity and thereby inhibits its oxidative activity. The haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex will then be removed by the reticuloendothelial system (mostly the spleen). In clinical settings, the haptoglobulin assay is used to screen for and monitor intravascular hemolytic anemia . In intravascular hemolysis, free hemoglobin will be released into circulation and hence haptoglobin will bind the hemoglobin. This causes a decline in haptoglobin levels. Conversely, in extravascular hemolysis the reticuloendothelial system, especially splenic monocytes, phagocytose the erythrocytes and hemoglobin is not released into circulation; serum haptoglobin levels are therefore normal. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 7454 Audiopedia
Bilirubin Metabolism
 
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Views: 561225 Armando Hasudungan
Sickle cell anemia - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology
 
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What is sickle cell anemia? Sickle cell anemia is an autosomal recessive genetic condition where the beta-globin protein subunit of hemoglobin is misshapen, which ultimately leads to a sickle-shaped red blood cell, which is prematurely destroyed and can get stuck in small blood vessels. Find more videos at http://osms.it/more. Hundreds of thousands of current & future clinicians learn by Osmosis. We have unparalleled tools and materials to prepare you to succeed in school, on board exams, and as a future clinician. Sign up for a free trial at http://osms.it/more. Subscribe to our Youtube channel at http://osms.it/subscribe. Get early access to our upcoming video releases, practice questions, giveaways, and more when you follow us on social media: Facebook: http://osms.it/facebook Twitter: http://osms.it/twitter Instagram: http://osms.it/instagram Our Vision: Everyone who cares for someone will learn by Osmosis. Our Mission: To empower the world’s clinicians and caregivers with the best learning experience possible. Learn more here: http://osms.it/mission Medical disclaimer: Knowledge Diffusion Inc (DBA Osmosis) does not provide medical advice. Osmosis and the content available on Osmosis's properties (Osmosis.org, YouTube, and other channels) do not provide a diagnosis or other recommendation for treatment and are not a substitute for the professional judgment of a healthcare professional in diagnosis and treatment of any person or animal. The determination of the need for medical services and the types of healthcare to be provided to a patient are decisions that should be made only by a physician or other licensed health care provider. Always seek the advice of a physician or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you have regarding a medical condition.
Views: 506110 Osmosis
Blood groups and blood transfusion
 
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Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, HDN, HDFN, or erythroblastosis fetalis,[1] is an alloimmune condition that develops in a peripartum fetus, when the IgG molecules (one of the five main types of antibodies) produced by the mother pass through the placenta. Among these antibodies are some which attack antigens on the red blood cells in the fetal circulation, breaking down and destroying the cells (hemolysis). The fetus can develop reticulocytosis and anemia. This fetal disease ranges from mild to very severe, and fetal death from heart failure (hydrops fetalis) can occur. When the disease is moderate or severe, many erythroblasts (immature red blood cells) are present in the fetal blood, and so these forms of the disease can be called erythroblastosis fetalis (or erythroblastosis foetalis). HDFN represents a breach of immune privilege for the fetus or some other form of impairment of the immune tolerance of pregnancy. Various types of HDFN are classified by which alloantigen provokes the response. In order of incidence, the types include ABO, anti-RhD, anti-RhE, anti-Rhc, anti-Rhe, anti-RhC, multiantigen combinations, and anti-Kell Signs and symptoms Signs of hemolytic disease of the newborn include a positive direct Coombs test (also called direct agglutination test), elevated cord bilirubin levels, and hemolytic anemia. It is possible for a newborn with this disease to have neutropenia and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia as well. Hemolysis leads to elevated bilirubin levels. After delivery bilirubin is no longer cleared (via the placenta) from the neonate's blood and the symptoms of jaundice (yellowish skin and yellow discoloration of the whites of the eyes, or icterus) increase within 24 hours after birth. Like other forms of severe neonatal jaundice, there is the possibility of the neonate developing acute or chronic kernicterus, however the risk of kernicterus in HDN is higher because of the rapid and massive destruction of blood cells. It is important to note that isoimmunization is a risk factor for neurotoxicity and lowers the level at which kernicterus can occur. Untreated profound anemia can cause high-output heart failure, with pallor, enlarged liver and/or spleen, generalized swelling, and respiratory distress. HDN can be the cause of hydrops fetalis, an often-severe form of prenatal heart failure that causes fetal edema.[2] Complications Complications of HDN could include kernicterus, hepatosplenomegaly, inspissated (thickened or dried) bile syndrome and/or greenish staining of the teeth, hemolytic anemia and damage to the liver due to excess bilirubin. Similar conditions include acquired hemolytic anemia, congenital toxoplasma, congenital syphilis infection, congenital obstruction of the bile duct, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. High at birth or rapidly rising bilirubin[3] Prolonged hyperbilirubinemia[3] Bilirubin Induced Neurological Dysfunction[4] Cerebral Palsy[5] Kernicterus[6] Neutropenia[7][8] Thrombocytopenia[7] Hemolytic anemia - Must NOT be treated with iron[9] Late onset anemia - Must NOT be treated with iron. Can persist up to 12 weeks after birth.[10][11][12] Pathophysiology Antibodies are produced when the body is exposed to an antigen foreign to the make-up of the body. If a mother is exposed to a foreign antigen and produces IgG (as opposed to IgM which does not cross the placenta), the IgG will target the antigen, if present in the fetus, and may affect it in utero and persist after delivery. The three most common models in which a woman becomes sensitized toward (i.e., produces IgG antibodies against) a particular antigen are hemorrhage, blood transfusion, and ABO incompatibility. Fetal-maternal hemorrhage, which is the movement of fetal blood cells across the placenta, can occur during abortion, ectopic pregnancy, childbirth, ruptures in the placenta during pregnancy (often caused by trauma), or medical procedures carried out during pregnancy that breach the uterine wall. In subsequent pregnancies, if there is a similar incompatibility in the fetus, these antibodies are
Views: 45 Medicos Adda
Liver function tests
 
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Liver function tests are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give information about the state of a patient's liver. The parameters measured include prothrombin time , aPTT, albumin, bilirubin , and others. Liver transaminases are useful biomarkers of liver injury in a patient with some degree of intact liver function. Most liver diseases cause only mild symptoms initially, but these diseases must be detected early. Hepatic involvement in some diseases can be of crucial importance. This testing is performed by a medical technologist on a patient's serum or plasma sample obtained by phlebotomy. Some tests are associated with functionality , some with cellular integrity , and some with conditions linked to the biliary tract . Several biochemical tests are useful in the evaluation and management of patients with hepatic dysfunction. These tests can be used to detect the presence of liver disease, distinguish among different types of liver disorders, gauge the extent of known liver damage, and follow the response to treatment. Some or all of these measurements are also carried out on those individuals taking certain medications — anticonvulsants are a notable example — to ensure the medications are not damaging the person's liver. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA
Views: 9370 encyclopediacc