Search results “Determining most stable carbocation”
Carbocation Stability - Resonance & Rearrangement - Allylic & Vinylic Examples - Organic Chemistry
This organic chemistry video tutorial explains how to determine which carbocation is most stable. It provides plenty of examples including allylic and vinylic carbocations using resonance structures to explain why allylic carbocations are most stable. It also provide examples of carbocations containing electron donating groups and electron withdrawing groups. It also discusses why tertiary carbocations are more stable than primary and secondary carbocations using terms such as hyperconjugation and the inductive effect.
Determining Carbocation Stability
Now we’re going to discuss the most important intermediate of all organic chemistry, the carbocation. Watch more of this topic at ► http://bit.ly/28JcWXB Download this PDF: http://bit.ly/28JN5NR GET MORE CLUTCH! VISIT our website for more of the help you need: http://bit.ly/28JN2BU SUBSCRIBE for new videos: http://cltch.us/1axA33X --- LET'S CONNECT! Facebook: http://cltch.us/1JLgiSZ Twitter: http://cltch.us/1NLcKpu Instagram: http://cltch.us/1If5pb7 Google+: http://cltch.us/1E34o85 Clutch Prep = Textbook specific videos to help you pass your toughest science classes.
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TRICK to compare any Carbocation Stability - JEE||NEET||CBSE (IITian Faculty)(Hindi)
"IITian Faculty" explains the above concept in entertaining and conceptual manner.
Carbocation Stability Primary Secondary Tertiary Allylic and Benzylic
Are you struggling with organic chemistry? Download my free ebook "10 Secrets To Acing Organic Chemistry" here: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ http://leah4sci.com/organicchemistry/ presents Carbocation stability Part 1 This is an older video. For my new tutorials and associated quizzess visit this page: http://leah4sci.com/college-corner/organic-chemistry-video-and-quiz-library/ Please post questions/comments below or contact me via my website: http://leah4sci.com/contact/ Find me online: http://leah4sci.com FACEBOOK: http://facebook.com/leah4sci TWITTER: http://twitter.com/leah4sci
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List The Following Carbocations In Increasing Order of Stability
This video shows you how to list the following carbocations in order of stability.
Stability of Carbocation:Solved Questions -in Hindi English Mix
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Carbocation (Lightboard)
Carbocation Stability: A comparison This organic chemistry video tutorial explains how to determine which carbocation is most stable. It also discusses why tertiary carbocations are more stable than primary and secondary carbocations using terms such as hyperconjugation and the inductive effect.
Views: 2599 Fun Man FUNG
Carbocation Stability - Hyperconjugation and The Inductive Effect
This organic chemistry video discusses two ways an electron donating group such as a methyl group can stabilize a carbocation - that is - by means of hyperconjugation and the inductive effect. This video explains the hyperconjugation and inductive effect with plenty of examples.
Carbocation Stability and Hyperconjugation in Organic Chemistry
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Alkene stability
How increased substitution leads to more stable alkenes.
Carbocation Stability - Hyperconjugation, Inductive Effect & Resonance Structures
This organic chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into carbocation stability. It discusses hyperconjugation and the inductive effect of electron donating groups and electron withdrawing groups. It also discusses carbocation stability using resonance structures. Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEWpbFLzoYGPfuWUMFPSaoA?sub_confirmation=1 Access to Premium Videos: https://www.patreon.com/MathScienceTutor https://www.facebook.com/MathScienceTutoring/ New Organic Chemistry Playlist https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6unef5Hz6SU&index=1&list=PL0o_zxa4K1BXP7TUO7656wg0uF1xYnwgm&t=0s
Carbocation Stability I Question + Solution I JEE/NEET I PSS-01
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3 Factors That Influence Carbocation Stability
3 key factors that influence carbocation stability - substitution, resonance, and the presence of heteroatoms. From MasterOrganicChemistry.com [http://masterorganicchemistry.com]
carbocations and rearrangements
More free lessons at: http://www.khanacademy.org/video?v=fv9h29ZChfI
Stability of carbocations
In this video I go over a strategy on how to identify the most stable carbocation intermediate to help us determine the product of a reaction.
Views: 3680 Alan Guo
Trick to Compare Any Carbanion Stability - JEE||NEET||CBSE (IITian Faculty)(Hindi)
"IITian Faculty" explains the above concept in entertaining and conceptual manner.
How to determine which structure is most stable
Often one of the resonance structures will be more stable, so it will contribute to the hybrid more than the others. Use the octet rule and electronegativity trends to determine the best placement of charges. (i.e. Fluorine is more stable with a negative charge than oxygen). Watch more of this topic at ► http://bit.ly/28J8zcy GET MORE CLUTCH! VISIT our website for more of the help you need: http://bit.ly/28J8tl3 SUBSCRIBE for new videos: http://cltch.us/1axA33X --- LET'S CONNECT! Facebook: http://cltch.us/1JLgiSZ Twitter: http://cltch.us/1NLcKpu Instagram: http://cltch.us/1If5pb7 Google+: http://cltch.us/1E34o85 Clutch Prep = Textbook specific videos to help you pass your toughest science classes.
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Carbocation Stability in Organic Chemistry Part - 1 | CHEMISTRY | JEE | NEET | IIT | By Chintan Sir
Please watch: "Chemistry Physics New website Launch | CHEMISTRY | NEET | JEE | By Chintan Sir" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wKFxRixiKB8 --~-- The charged carbon atom in a carbocation is a "sextet", i.e. it has only six electrons in its outer valence shell instead of the eight valence electrons that ensures maximum stability (octet rule). Therefore, carbocations are often reactive, seeking to fill the octet of valence electrons as well as regain a neutral charge. One could reasonably assume a carbocation to have sp3 hybridization with an empty sp3 orbital giving positive charge. However, the reactivity of a carbocation more closely resembles sp2 hybridization with a trigonal planar molecular geometry. An example is the methyl cation, A carbocation may be stabilized by resonance by a carbon-carbon double bond next to the ionized carbon. Such cations as allyl cation CH2=CH–CH2+ and benzyl cation C6H5–CH2+ are more stable than most other carbocations. Molecules that can form allyl or benzyl carbocations are especially reactive. These carbocations where the C+ is adjacent to another carbon atom that has a double or triple bond have extra stability because of the overlap of the empty p orbital of the carbocation with the p orbitals of the π bond. This overlap of the orbitals allows the charge to be shared between multiple atoms – delocalization of the charge - and, therefore, stabilizes the carbocation. Hyperconjugation is also a stabilizing factor for carbocations. The empty pi orbitals of the carbon atom accepts a pair of electrons from the alpha carbon which then acquires the positive charge. More alpha hydrogens increases the stability of carbocation. Stability order also follows sp3 - sp2 -sp hybridization of the carbon atom bearing positive charge. In the NMR spectrum of a dimethyl derivative, two nonequivalent signals are found for the two methyl groups, indicating that the molecular conformation of this cation is not perpendicular (as in A) but is bisected (as in B) with the empty p-orbital and the cyclopropyl ring system in the same plane: In terms of bent bond theory, this preference is explained by assuming favorable orbital overlap between the filled cyclopropane bent bonds and the empty p-orbital. .
Carbocations and Carbanions | General Organic Chemistry | Explained by IITian | Jee Mains & Advance
Carbocations and Carbanions are some of the most important topics in General Organic Chemistry for Jee Mains & Advance. Carbocations:- Carbocations are the key intermediates in several reactions and particularly in nucleophilic substitution reactions. Structure of Carbocations : Generally, in the carbocations the positively charged carbon atom is bonded to three other atoms and has no nonbonding electrons. It is sp2 hybridized with a planar structure and bond angles of about 120°. There is a vacant unhybridized p orbital which in the case of CH3+ lies perpendicular to the plane of C—H bonds. Stability of Carbocations: There is an increase in carbocation stability with additional alkyl substitution. Thus one finds that addition of HX to three typical olefins decreases in the order (CH3)2C=CH2 greater CH3—CH = CH2 greater CH2 = CH2. This is due to the relative stabilities of the carbocations formed in the rate determining step which in turn follows from the fact that the stability is increased by the electron releasing methyl group (+I), three such groups being more effective than two, and two more effective than one. Stability of carbocations 3°greater 2° greater 1° greater CH3+ Electron release : Disperses charge, stabilizes ion. Further, any structural feature which tends to reduce the electron deficiency at the tricoordinate carbon stabilizes the carbocation. Thus when the positive carbon is in conjugation with a double bond, the stability is more. This is so, because due to resonance the positive charge is spread over two atoms instead of being concentrated on only one. This explains the stability associated with the allylic cation. The benzylic cations are stable, since one can draw canonical forms as for allylic cations. The benzyl cation stability is affected by the presence of substituents on the ring. Electron donating p-methoxy and p-amino groups stabilize the carbocation by 14 and 26 kcal/mole, respectively. The electron withdrawing groups like p-nitro destabilize by 20 kcal/mol. A hetero atom with an unshared pair of electrons when present adjacent to the cationic centre strongly stabilizes the carbocation. The methoxymethyl cation has been obtained as a stable solid CH3O+CH2SbF6-. Cyclopropylmethyl cations are even more stable than the benzyl cations. This special stability is a result of conjugation between the bent orbitals of the cyclopropyl ring and the vacant p orbital of the cationic carbon. That the carbocations are planar is shown by the fact that these are difficult or impossible to form at bridgeheads, where they cannot be planar. The stability order of carbocation is explained by hyperconjugation. In vinyl cations (CH2 = C+H), resonance stability lacks completely and these therefore are very much less stable. Carbanions Structure of Carbanions: A carbanion possesses an unshared pair of electron and thus represents a base. The best likely description is that the central carbon atom is sp3 hybridized with the unshared pair occupying one apex of the tetrahedron. Carbanions would thus have pyramidal structures similar to those of amines. It is believed that carbanions undergo a rapid interconversion between two pyramidal forms. There is evidence for the sp3 nature of the central carbon and for its tetrahedral structure. At bridgehead a carbon does not undergo reactions in which it must be converted to a carbocation. However, the reactions which involve carbanions at such centres take place with ease, and stable bridgehead carbanions are known. In case this structure is correct and if all three R groups on a carbanions are different, the carbanion should be chiral. All reactions therefore, which involve the formation of chiral carbanion should give retention of configuration. However, this never happens and has been explained due to an umbrella effect as in amines. Thus the unshared pair and the central carbon rapidly oscillate from one side of the plane to the other. Stability and Generation of Carbanions: The Grignard reagent is the best known member of a broad class of substances, called organometallic compounds where carbon is bonded to a metal lithium, potassium sodium, zinc, mercury, lead, thallium – almost any metal known. Whatever the metal it is less electronegative than carbon, and the carbon metal bond like the one in the Grignard reagent highly polar. Although the organic group is not a full-fledged carbanion – an anion in which carbon carries negative charge, it however, has carbanion character. Or organometallic compounds can serve as a source from which carbon is readily transferred with its electrons. On treatment with a metal, in RX the direction of the original dipole moment is reversed (reverse polarization). We Hope, you all will enjoy the lecture. Thanks Team IITian Explains
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SN1 exercises - Carbocation Stability
For more, go to http://masterorganicchemistry.com SN1 - carbocation stability. Try these exercises yourself!
Carbocation and Carbanion Relative Stability
This video discusses the differences between the carbocation and the carbanion as regards to how they form and their relative stability.
Carbanion Stability
Methyl Carbanions are more stable than tertiary carbanions. Electron donating groups such as methyls can cause the carbanion to be less stable. The presence of electron withdrawing group such as Fluorine can be stabilize the negative charge of a carbanion.
Trick to Compare any Free radical stability - IITJEE concepts in Hindi
"IITian Faculty" explains the above concept in entertaining and conceptual manner.
Markovnikov's rule and carbocations | Alkenes and Alkynes | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy
Markovnikov's Rule and Carbocations. Figuring out which addition reaction is more likely. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/alkenes-alkynes/alkene-reactions/v/addition-of-water-acid-catalyzed-mechanism?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/alkenes-alkynes/alkene-reactions/v/introduction-to-reaction-mechanisms?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKPjijOc0WEJ7DIV_Vay3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
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Carbocation Stability in Organic Chemistry Part - 3 | CHEMISTRY | JEE | NEET | IIT | By Chintan Sir
Please watch: "Chemistry Physics New website Launch | CHEMISTRY | NEET | JEE | By Chintan Sir" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wKFxRixiKB8 --~-- Clearly, the tertiary carbocation is the most stable, as it is surrounded by three other carbon atoms that share the burden of its positive charge. Primary and especially methyl carbocations are rarely seen in organic reactions except under special circumstances like in the case of benzylic or allylic cations. Similarly, a tertiary benzylic cation is more stable than a secondary benzylic cation, which is more stable than the (primary) benzyl cation. Because the allyl and benzyl cations have delocalized electrons, they are more stable than other primary carbocations. Hyperconjugation is the stabilising interaction that results from the interaction of the electrons in a σ-bond (usually C-H or C-C) with an adjacent empty or partially filled p-orbital or a π-orbital to give an extended molecular orbital that increases the stability of the system.
carbocations: formation and stability
Carbocations and factors affecting their formation and stability is presented in this video-tutorial. The main topics covered in this video tutorial are the following: What is a carbocation – Definition Types of carbocations Factors that stabilize carbocations Examples A carbocation is a species where a carbon atom bonds to three other atoms and has a positive charge. Carbocations are electron deficient species and therefore very reactive and unstable. The simplest carbocation is the methyl cation CH3+ The methyl cation has only three bonds to the positively charged center, only six electrons in the outer shell and is electron deficient. It is planar trigonal with an empty p orbital. The methyl cation is so unstable that is rarely formed even in the gas phase. Most stable carbocations have extra stabilization mainly from electron donating functional groups but even these relatively stable cations cannot be detected in normal solutions by NMR. Carbocations are characterized as primary, secondary or tertiary depending upon the number of bonds that the carbon atom with the positive charge has with other carbon atoms. As the methyl or in general the alkyl groups are electron-donating tertiary carbocations show extra stability and different reactivity than the primary. Primary carbocations have a carbon atom with a positive charge that has only one bond with another carbon atom Secondary carbocations have a carbon atom with a positive charge that has two bonds with two carbon atoms. Tertiary carbocations have a carbon atom with a positive charge that has three bonds with three carbon atoms A few other interesting cases of carbocations are the following: Allylic carbocations: Carbocation where the carbon atom with the positive charge is immediately adjacent to a carbon-carbon double bond. Benzylic carbocations: Carbocation where the carbon atom with the positive charge is immediately adjacent to a benzene ring. Vinylic carbocations: Carbocation where the carbon atom with the positive charge is part of an alkene. Aryl carbocations: Carbocation where the carbon atom with the positive charge is part of a benzene ring. Carbocations are by their very nature unstable species. However, there are certain factors that stabilize them such as: Resonance Inductive effects Rearrangements Please share this video: https://youtu.be/z2b3y_Wv93U Subsribe to Chemistry_Net: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCRHkadk8a3zbg7RsKYwcuHw?view_as=public Relevant Videos: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLGEE3kLOMCp46vZf8gFM-p08D6dzNoBXW https://youtu.be/uJSlfl1hU_k https://youtu.be/LcA7-8755rE For theory and examples please see: Chemistry Net: http://chem-net.blogspot.com/ http://www.chem.ucla.edu/harding/tutorials/cc.pdf
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Organic Chemistry Resonance Structures - Rules, Practice Examples, Formal Charge, Drawing Compounds
This organic chemistry video tutorial shows you how to draw resonance structures. It provides the rules that you need to know along with plenty of examples and practice problems. It shows you how to calculate the formal charge of an element in a compound and it shows you how to determine the major resonance contributor and the minor resonance structure by identifying which resonance structure is more or less stable using principles such as electronegativity, atomic and ionic size, formal charge separation, aromaticity and octet sastifactory requirements. This video lecture explains why secondary carbocations are more stable than primary carbocations and why the reverse is true in the case of carbanions. It explains this concept using principles such as the inductive effect, hyperconjugation, and the presence of electron donating groups. This video lecture contains plenty of notes and examples for you to remember whenever your drawing resonance structures.
The Stability of Anions
Anions are commonly encountered under basic conditions. What factors govern their stability?
Views: 7122 Michael Evans
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The radical stability trend
Radicals are unstable intermediates. So we’re going to have to discuss some ways to stabilize them. Unlike carbocations, allylic and benzylic radicals are ALWAYS most stable. Watch more of this topic at ► http://bit.ly/28KunWo Download this PDF: http://bit.ly/28KumSt GET MORE CLUTCH! VISIT our website for more of the help you need: http://bit.ly/28IFX6Z SUBSCRIBE for new videos: http://cltch.us/1axA33X --- LET'S CONNECT! Facebook: http://cltch.us/1JLgiSZ Twitter: http://cltch.us/1NLcKpu Instagram: http://cltch.us/1If5pb7 Google+: http://cltch.us/1E34o85 Clutch Prep = Textbook specific videos to help you pass your toughest science classes.
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Comparing Stability of Resonance structures - IITJEE Concepts in Hindi
This video explains the above concept in entertaining and conceptual manner.
Understanding why carbocations shift
Carbocations will rearrange to an adjacent, more stable possible if possible. These have different names based on which atoms are rearranging. The Hammond-Postulate more accurately describes what transition states look like. Paraphrased version: “Transition states most closely resemble the species with the highest energy.”Watch more of this topic at ► http://bit.ly/28Jd8Gc Download this PDF: http://bit.ly/28Jd9Kq GET MORE CLUTCH! VISIT our website for more of the help you need: http://bit.ly/28JdjRR SUBSCRIBE for new videos: http://cltch.us/1axA33X --- LET'S CONNECT! Facebook: http://cltch.us/1JLgiSZ Twitter: http://cltch.us/1NLcKpu Instagram: http://cltch.us/1If5pb7 Google+: http://cltch.us/1E34o85 Clutch Prep = Textbook specific videos to help you pass your toughest science classes.
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The correct order of Stability of Carbocation is-  CSIR DEC 2017
The question asked about the order of stability of Carbocation in CSIR DEC 2017. In this video I will discuss how to solve these type of questions and what is order of Stability of Carbocations.
Views: 5633 All 'Bout Chemistry
2423 PE02BMC 014 - Carbocation Stability 005
Arrange the following carbocations in order of increasing stability (least stable to most stable).
Alkene Stability - Most Stable, Rank / Order - Cis & Trans Practice - Organic Chemistry
This organic chemistry video tutorial shows you how to determine which alkene is most stable. It explains how to rank alkenes in order of increasing stability. It provides examples and practice problems such as conjugated alkenes / dienes and cis and trans E/Z isomers and alkenes in rings. Allenes and Cumulated Dienes are included as well.
Resonance Made Easy! Finding the Most Stable Resonance Structure - Organic Chemistry
Resonance Made Easy! Are you struggling with Resonance structures or just don't really get what's going on when you do it? Well it's just the movement of electrons from one region to another. This used to be one of my most dreaded things to do in Orgo I after NMRs. But eventually I figured out a better way of thinking about it and I show you guys in this video! Don't forget to check out the "bloops" at the end and see the struggles of Orgo Made Easy. =D Finding Resonance Structures Made Easy Part 1- https://youtu.be/RVKy_jXO2rk Finding Resonance Structures Made Easy Part 2- https://youtu.be/xJyjkhi2wzE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ● We Are Orgo Made Easy! (Welcome Part 1) - (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5b0ugnM3Uw) ● 7 Must Know Resources for Organic Chemistry! (Welcome Part 2) - (https://youtu.be/1QkGxQCI1es) http://OrgoMadeEasy.org/extra-resources/ ●Become a Patron + Free Private Tutoring Lottery! http://www.Patreon.com/OrgoMadeEasy (In-Person or Skype!) ●Private Tutoring Information: I offer in-person private tutoring in Boston and NYC, and if you live elsewhere on this awesome planet I offer online Skype tutoring that is accompanied with a whiteboard program. For more info check here: http://orgomadeeasy.org/private-tutoring/ and contact me via my "Orgo Made Easy" Facebook page or email: [email protected] Make sure you share this with your friends if you found it helpful, and I would love it if you leave some comments to let me know if I'm on the right track ;). ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subscribe to get updated when I make new videos! https://www.youtube.com/user/OrgoMadeEasy/about?sub_confirmation=1 Connect with me on Facebook/Instagram/Twitter! Facebook-------------------------------https://Facebook.com/OrgoMadeEasy Instagram-------------------------------http://Instagram.com/OrgoMadeEasy Instagram-------------------------------http://Instagram.com/FrankMWong Official Website-----------------------http://OrgoMadeEasy.org/ Help Support Me Here--------------http://www.Patreon.com/OrgoMadeEasy Private Tutoring-----------------------http://OrgoMadeEasy.org/private-tutoring/ Tweet Tweet---------------------------https://Twitter.com/OrgoMadeEasy
Views: 304323 Frank Wong
L-11-JEE(Advanced) Problem Based on Stability of carbocation reaction intermediate
in this video we will learn very-very important jee advanced problems related to stability of carbocation reaction intermediate.
Dehydration of Tertiary Alcohol, E1 Reaction, Most Stable Carbocation Ch7.WP.UG.Q10
TheFateOfTime's Webcam Video from May 17, 2012 12:04 PM
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Stability of alkene
Views: 7246 Aakash krishna
What is Carbocation? -  IITJEE Concepts in Hindi
"IITian Faculty" explains the above concept in entertaining and conceptual manner.
Must Remember this acidic strength order in Organic chemistry
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Super Trick to  Identify any Electrophile and Nucleophile ?- IITJEE concepts in Hindi
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Inductive Effect 1 I NEET/JEE
Helios Educore Pvt. Ltd. Sunshine Business Park, Plot - 5A, Sector-94, Noida (UP) INDIA-201301 Chemistry Video Lectures to prepare for JEE-Main, JEE-Advanced, NEET & and Board Exams. visit us : www.helioseducore.com Email : [email protected] Mob. : 08010000068 For Purchase : http://helioseducore.com/product-category/buy-book/ or Amazon Search Er Dushyant Kumar
Stability of Resonance structures
Stability of Resonance structures
Views: 302 ChemAkash
Carbanion Stability in Organic Chemistry Part - II | CHEMISTRY | JEE | NEET | IIT | By Chintan Sir
Please watch: "Chemistry Physics New website Launch | CHEMISTRY | NEET | JEE | By Chintan Sir" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wKFxRixiKB8 --~-- Geometry of allyl and benzyl cabanion is almost planar and hybridisation is sp2. (ii) There are eight electrons in the outermost orbit of carbanionic carbon hence its octet is complete. (iii) It behaves as charged nucleophile. (iv) It is diamagnetic in character because all eight electrons are paired. (v) It is formed by heterolytic bond fission. (vi) It reacts with electrophiles. Anions in which negative charge is present on carbon of aromatic system is known as aromatic carbanions. Aromatic carbanions are most stable carbaions because unshared electron pair of carbaion itself take part in delocalisation. Anions obeying Huckel rule are stable because they are aromatic and there is complete delocalisation of negative charge.
Markovnikov Rule: How to determine Major Product for Alkene Addition Reaction
When an asymmetrical reactant such as HBr, HCl and H2O is added to an asymmetrical alkene, two possible products can be formed. Markovnikov Rule, which states that hydrogen will be added to the carbon with more hydrogen, can be used to predict the major product of this reaction. The explanation behind Markovnikov Rule is when hydrogen is added to the carbon with more hydrogen, a more stable carbocation is formed hence the formation of this more stable carbocation is favoured which eventually ends up as the major product. We can use the mechanism Electrophilic Addition of alkenes to predict the two carbocations formed, and compare which carbocation is more stable by comparing the number of electron-donating alkyl groups attached to the carbocation. Check out this video lesson to learn how to determine major product for alkene addition reactions using Markovnikov Rule, and learn how to compare stability of carbocations! Topic: Alkenes, Organic Chemistry, A Level Chemistry, Singapore Found this video useful? Please LIKE this video and SHARE it with your friends. SUBSCRIBE to my YouTube Channel for new A Level Chemistry video lessons every week! Any feedback, comments or questions to clarify? Suggestions for new video lessons? Drop them in the COMMENTS Section, I would love to hear from you! I am also conducting A Level Chemistry classes at Bishan Central, Singapore. With my years of experience tutoring hundreds of JC students since 2010, I am confident that I can make H2 Chemistry Simpler for you too! For more information please visit: WEBSITE: https://chemistryguru.com.sg/ -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch my latest video: "Structural Isomerism, Constitutional Isomerism - Organic Chemistry" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ci9atZSHuZk -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 377 Chemistry Guru
Question 9 CHEM 2211exam3sp17 - carbocation stability ranking
looks at the effects of hyperconjugation on the stability of carbocations