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Mastitis
 
21:39
Mastitis is the inflammation of breast tissue. S. aureus is the most common etiological organism responsible, but S. epidermidis and streptococci are occasionally isolated as well. Mastitis can be classified as milk stasis, non-infectious or infectious inflammation and abscess. It is impossible to correlate this classification with clinical symptoms. In particular, milk stasis, non-infectious and infectious inflammation can be distinguished only by leukocyte count and bacteria culturing. Symptoms like fever, intensity of pain, erythema or rapid onset of symptoms can not be used to distinguish these. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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Human microbiota | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_microbiota 00:01:51 1 Terminology 00:02:27 2 Relative numbers 00:03:42 3 Study 00:06:26 3.1 Shotgun Sequencing 00:06:56 3.1.1 Collection of samples and DNA extraction 00:07:35 3.1.2 Preparation of the library and sequencing 00:08:04 3.1.3 Metagenome assembly 00:08:40 3.1.4 Contig binning 00:09:22 3.1.5 Analysis after the processing 00:10:13 3.2 Marker gene analysis 00:13:09 3.3 Phylogenetic Analysis 00:14:46 4 Types 00:14:55 4.1 Bacteria 00:17:23 4.2 Archaea 00:18:07 4.3 Fungi 00:18:37 4.4 Viruses 00:19:05 5 Anatomical areas 00:19:15 5.1 Skin 00:20:43 5.2 Conjunctiva 00:21:32 5.3 Gut 00:24:33 5.4 Urethra and bladder 00:25:20 5.5 Vagina 00:26:55 5.6 Placenta 00:27:16 5.7 Uterus 00:27:44 5.8 Oral cavity 00:31:11 5.9 Lung 00:32:46 5.10 Biliary tract 00:33:22 6 Disease and death 00:33:40 6.1 Cancer 00:36:25 6.2 Inflammatory bowel disease 00:36:58 6.3 Human immunodeficiency virus 00:38:08 6.4 Death 00:38:31 7 Environmental health 00:38:55 8 Migration 00:39:22 9 See also 00:39:31 10 Bibliography Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9308021918324354 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts. They include bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses. Though micro-animals can also live on the human body, they are typically excluded from this definition. The human microbiome refers specifically to the collective genomes of resident microorganisms.Humans are colonized by many microorganisms; the traditional estimate is that the average human body is inhabited by ten times as many non-human cells as human cells, but more recent estimates have lowered that ratio to 3:1 or even to approximately the same number. Some microorganisms that colonize humans are commensal, meaning they co-exist without harming humans; others have a mutualistic relationship with their human hosts. Conversely, some non-pathogenic microorganisms can harm human hosts via the metabolites they produce, like trimethylamine, which the human body converts to trimethylamine N-oxide via FMO3-mediated oxidation. Certain microorganisms perform tasks that are known to be useful to the human host but the role of most of them is not well understood. Those that are expected to be present, and that under normal circumstances do not cause disease, are sometimes deemed normal flora or normal microbiota.The Human Microbiome Project took on the project of sequencing the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that normally inhabit the skin, mouth, nose, digestive tract, and vagina. It reached a milestone in 2012 when it published its initial results.
Views: 13 wikipedia tts
Charité Clinical Journal Club by Fred Luft - 9.9.2015
 
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The N Engl J Med image of the week shows a cerebral MRI with a fist-sized cystic lesion in the right hemisphere. You are offered Chiari malformation, cavernous angioma, asymptomatic cortical infarct, giant cerebral aneurysm, and arachnoid cyst. We go over all these conditions. Fat mass and obesity-associated protein, also known as alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (FTO) is an enzyme, the first mRNA demethylase that has been identified. Certain variants (intronic rs1421085) of the FTO gene appear to be correlated with obesity in humans. Individuals with two copies of the obesity-risk FTO variant are biologically programmed to eat more. Not only do these people have higher ghrelin levels and therefore feel hungrier, their brains respond differently to ghrelin and to pictures of food. Investigators examined epigenomic data, allelic activity, motif conservation, regulator expression, and gene coexpression patterns, with the aim of dissecting the regulatory circuitry and mechanistic basis of the association between the FTO region and obesity. They found that disruption of a conserved ARID5B repressor motif by causal single nucleotide variant, rs1421085, is responsible. The faulty repressor leads to loss of binding, derepression of a potent preadipocyte superenhancer, and activation of downstream targets IRX3 and IRX5 during early differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors into adipocyte subtypes. More fat-storing white fat cells are produced. Telomerase, also called telomere terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds the nucleotide "TTAGGG" to the 3' end of telomeres, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Imetelstat is a lipid-conjugated 13-mer oligonucleotide sequence that is complementary to and binds with high affinity to the RNA template of telomerase, thereby directly inhibiting telomerase activity (antisense strategy). Investigators sought to obtain preliminary information on the therapeutic activity and safety of imetelstat in patients with high-risk or intermediate-2–risk myelofibrosis. In a second phase 2 study, hematologists investigated whether or not imetelstat could elicit hematologic and molecular responses in patients with essential thrombocythemia who had not had a response to or who had had unacceptable side effects from prior therapies. JAK2 mutations occur commonly in both conditions. The results, while somewhat difficult to discern, were encouraging in both studies. The natural history, management, and outcome of takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy are incompletely understood. The International Takotsubo Registry, a consortium of 26 centers in Europe and the United States, was established to investigate clinical features, prognostic predictors, and outcome of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Patients were compared with age- and sex-matched patients who had an acute coronary syndrome. We learn that both early and late complications were common in Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy. Physicians who travel may be asked to render care to a passenger who is having a medical emergency during a commercial flight. A considerable proportion of passengers in whom medical issues develop during travel require hospitalization. In-flight emergencies are reviewed in N Engl J Med. Actually I like the recent review in Deutsches Ärzteblatt better. We look at both. The case of the week has a fungal disease common in the Mississippi valley. No, it is not histoplasmosis. In the Lancet, we first review the molecular genetics of neonatal diabetes mellitus. Randomized controlled trials have shown that bariatric surgery is more effective than conventional treatment for the short-term control of type-2 diabetes. However, published studies are characterized by a relatively short follow-up. Investigators assessed 5-year outcomes from a randomized trial designed to compare surgery with conventional medical treatment for the treatment of type-2 diabetes in obese patients. Looks like it is a surgical disease. High doses of intravenous methylprednisolone are recommended to treat relapses in patients with multiple sclerosis, but can be inconvenient and expensive. We learn that oral high-dose therapy is just as good. The first Lancet review is on psoriasis, the second on the Middle-East respiratory syndrome. We end with a severe case of DOCK8-related Molluscum contagiosum.
Human microbiome | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_microbiota 00:01:58 1 Terminology 00:02:37 2 Relative numbers 00:03:55 3 Study 00:06:50 3.1 Shotgun Sequencing 00:07:23 3.1.1 Collection of samples and DNA extraction 00:08:05 3.1.2 Preparation of the library and sequencing 00:08:36 3.1.3 Metagenome assembly 00:09:15 3.1.4 Contig binning 00:09:59 3.1.5 Analysis after the processing 00:10:53 3.2 Marker gene analysis 00:14:02 3.3 Phylogenetic Analysis 00:15:46 4 Types 00:15:55 4.1 Bacteria 00:18:34 4.2 Archaea 00:19:21 4.3 Fungi 00:19:53 4.4 Viruses 00:20:23 5 Anatomical areas 00:20:33 5.1 Skin 00:22:07 5.2 Conjunctiva 00:22:59 5.3 Gut 00:26:13 5.4 Urethra and bladder 00:27:04 5.5 Vagina 00:28:47 5.6 Placenta 00:29:08 5.7 Uterus 00:29:39 5.8 Oral cavity 00:33:24 5.9 Lung 00:35:06 5.10 Biliary tract 00:35:45 6 Disease and death 00:36:05 6.1 Cancer 00:39:00 6.2 Inflammatory bowel disease 00:39:36 6.3 Human immunodeficiency virus 00:40:51 6.4 Death 00:41:19 7 Environmental health 00:41:45 8 Migration 00:42:14 9 See also 00:42:23 10 Bibliography Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.873621949970991 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts. They include bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses. Though micro-animals can also live on the human body, they are typically excluded from this definition. The human microbiome refers specifically to the collective genomes of resident microorganisms.Humans are colonized by many microorganisms; the traditional estimate is that the average human body is inhabited by ten times as many non-human cells as human cells, but more recent estimates have lowered that ratio to 3:1 or even to approximately the same number. Some microorganisms that colonize humans are commensal, meaning they co-exist without harming humans; others have a mutualistic relationship with their human hosts. Conversely, some non-pathogenic microorganisms can harm human hosts via the metabolites they produce, like trimethylamine, which the human body converts to trimethylamine N-oxide via FMO3-mediated oxidation. Certain microorganisms perform tasks that are known to be useful to the human host but the role of most of them is not well understood. Those that are expected to be present, and that under normal circumstances do not cause disease, are sometimes deemed normal flora or normal microbiota.The Human Microbiome Project took on the project of sequencing the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that normally inhabit the skin, mouth, nose, digestive tract, and vagina. It reached a milestone in 2012 when it published its initial results.
Views: 5 wikipedia tts