This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
00:01:48 1 History
00:01:57 1.1 Prehistoric mining
00:03:13 1.2 Ancient Egypt
00:04:23 1.3 Ancient Greek and Roman mining
00:08:00 1.4 Medieval Europe
00:12:01 1.5 Classical Philippine civilization
00:13:12 1.6 The Americas
00:16:14 1.7 Modern period
00:17:49 2 Mine development and lifecycle
00:20:32 3 Mining techniques
00:22:00 3.1 Surface mining
00:23:03 3.2 Underground mining
00:24:32 3.3 Highwall mining
00:26:16 4 Machines
00:27:38 5 Processing
00:30:22 6 Environmental effects
00:34:25 6.1 Waste
00:36:53 6.2 Renewable energy and mining
00:37:36 7 Mining industry
00:41:45 7.1 Corporate classifications
00:42:33 7.2 Regulation and governance
00:46:31 7.3 World Bank
00:48:38 8 Safety
00:52:16 9 Records
00:54:44 10 Metal reserves and recycling
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Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner.
Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water.
Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. De Re Metallica, Georgius Agricola, 1550, Book I, Para. 1Mining operations usually create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, and modern practices have significantly improved safety in mines.
Levels of metals recycling are generally low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products. Due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves.