The Globe and Mail's Sherrill Sutherland explains what is shale oil, how it is drilled and why it's important to the energy industry
Views: 12878 The Globe and Mail
What is OIL SHALE INDUSTRY? What does OIL SHALE INDUSTRY mean? OIL SHALE INDUSTRY meaning - OIL SHALE INDUSTRY definition - OIL SHALE INDUSTRY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Oil shale industry is an industry of mining and processing of oil shale—a fine-grained sedimentary rock, containing significant amounts of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds), from which liquid hydrocarbons can be manufactured. The industry has developed in Brazil, China, Estonia and to some extent in Germany and Russia. Several other countries are currently conducting research on their oil shale reserves and production methods to improve efficiency and recovery. However, Australia has halted their pilot projects due to environmental concerns. Estonia accounted for about 70% of the world's oil shale production in a study published in 2005. Oil shale has been used for industrial purposes since the early 17th century, when it was mined for its minerals. Since the late 19th century, shale oil has also been used for its oil content and as a low grade fuel for power generation. However, barring countries having significant oil shale deposits, its use for power generation is not particularly widespread. Similarly, oil shale is a source for production of synthetic crude oil and it is seen as a solution towards increasing domestic production of oil in countries that are reliant on imports. Oil shale is mined either by traditional underground mining or surface mining techniques. There are several mining methods available, but the common aim of all these methods is to fragment the oil shale deposits in order to enable the transport of shale fragments to a power plant or retorting facility. The main methods of surface mining are open pit mining and strip mining. An important method of sub-surface mining is the room-and-pillar method. In this method, the material is extracted across a horizontal plane while leaving "pillars" of untouched material to support the roof. These pillars reduce the likelihood of a collapse. Oil shale can also be obtained as a by-product of coal mining. The largest oil shale mine in the world is the Estonia Mine, operated by Enefit Kaevandused. In 2005, Estonia mined 14.8 million tonnes of oil shale. During the same period, mining permits were issued for almost 24 million tonnes, with applications being received for mining an additional 26 million tonnes. In 2008, the Estonian Parliament approved the "National Development Plan for the Use of Oil Shale 2008-2015", which limits the annual extraction of oil shale to 20 million tonnes. Oil shale can be used as a fuel in thermal power plants, wherein oil shale is burnt like coal to drive the steam turbines. As of 2012, there are oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia with a generating capacity of 2,967 megawatts (MW), China, and Germany. Also Israel, Romania and Russia have run oil shale-fired power plants, but have shut them down or switched to other fuels like natural gas. Jordan and Egypt have announced their plans to construct oil shale-fired power plants, while Canada and Turkey plan to burn oil shale at the power plants along with coal. Thermal power plants which use oil shale as a fuel mostly employ two types of combustion methods. The traditional method is Pulverized combustion (PC) which is used in the older units of oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia, while the more advanced method is Fluidized bed combustion (FBC), which is used in the Holcim cement factory in Dotternhausen, Germany, and was used in the Mishor Rotem power plant in Israel. The main FBC technologies are Bubbling fluidized bed combustion (BFBC) and Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC).
Views: 311 The Audiopedia
Oil Shale refers to the sedimentary shale rock that contains oil-prone kerogen (partially converted fossil organic matter) which has not been submitted to enough pressure and temperature over millions of years to release oil. Through advanced processing methods, the oil shale can be converted into shale oil and other hydrocarbons.
Views: 857 SG-Sintez Llc
What is SHALE OIL EXTRACTION? What does SHALE OIL EXTRACTION mean? SHALE OIL EXTRACTION meaning - SHALE OIL EXTRACTION definition - SHALE OIL EXTRACTION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Shale oil extraction is an industrial process for unconventional oil production. This process converts kerogen in oil shale into shale oil by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution. The resultant shale oil is used as fuel oil or upgraded to meet refinery feedstock specifications by adding hydrogen and removing sulfur and nitrogen impurities. Shale oil extraction is usually performed above ground (ex situ processing) by mining the oil shale and then treating it in processing facilities. Other modern technologies perform the processing underground (on-site or in situ processing) by applying heat and extracting the oil via oil wells. The earliest description of the process dates to the 10th century. In 1684, Great Britain granted the first formal extraction process patent. Extraction industries and innovations became widespread during the 19th century. The industry shrank in the mid-20th century following the discovery of large reserves of conventional oil, but high petroleum prices at the beginning of the 21st century have led to renewed interest, accompanied by the development and testing of newer technologies. As of 2010, major long-standing extraction industries are operating in Estonia, Brazil, and China. Its economic viability usually requires a lack of locally available crude oil. National energy security issues have also played a role in its development. Critics of shale oil extraction pose questions about environmental management issues, such as waste disposal, extensive water use, waste water management, and air pollution. Shale oil extraction process decomposes oil shale and converts its kerogen into shale oil—a petroleum-like synthetic crude oil. The process is conducted by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution. The efficiencies of extraction processes are often evaluated by comparing their yields to the results of a Fischer Assay performed on a sample of the shale. The oldest and the most common extraction method involves pyrolysis (also known as retorting or destructive distillation). In this process, oil shale is heated in the absence of oxygen until its kerogen decomposes into condensable shale oil vapors and non-condensable combustible oil shale gas. Oil vapors and oil shale gas are then collected and cooled, causing the shale oil to condense. In addition, oil shale processing produces spent oil shale, which is a solid residue. Spent shale consists of inorganic compounds (minerals) and char—a carbonaceous residue formed from kerogen. Burning the char off the spent shale produces oil shale ash. Spent shale and shale ash can be used as ingredients in cement or brick manufacture. The composition of the oil shale may lend added value to the extraction process through the recovery of by-products, including ammonia, sulfur, aromatic compounds, pitch, asphalt, and waxes. Heating the oil shale to pyrolysis temperature and completing the endothermic kerogen decomposition reactions require a source of energy. Some technologies burn other fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil, or coal to generate this heat and experimental methods have used electricity, radio waves, microwaves, or reactive fluids for this purpose. Two strategies are used to reduce, and even eliminate, external heat energy requirements: the oil shale gas and char by-products generated by pyrolysis may be burned as a source of energy, and the heat contained in hot spent oil shale and oil shale ash may be used to pre-heat the raw oil shale. For ex situ processing, oil shale is crushed into smaller pieces, increasing surface area for better extraction. The temperature at which decomposition of oil shale occurs depends on the time-scale of the process. In ex situ retorting processes, it begins at 300 °C (570 °F) and proceeds more rapidly and completely at higher temperatures. The amount of oil produced is the highest when the temperature ranges between 480 and 520 °C (900 and 970 °F). The ratio of oil shale gas to shale oil generally increases along with retorting temperatures. For a modern in situ process, which might take several months of heating, decomposition may be conducted at temperatures as low as 250 °C (480 °F). Temperatures below 600 °C (1,110 °F) are preferable, as this prevents the decomposition of lime stone and dolomite in the rock and thereby limits carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption.
Views: 4011 The Audiopedia
Fracking explained in five minutes. Fracking is a controversial topic. On the one side the gas drilling companies, on the other citizen opposed to this drilling method. Politicians are also divided on the matter. We try to take a neutral look on fracking. It is relevant for all of us, because of high prices for energy and the danger for our drinking water. This video focuses mostly on the debate currently ongoing in europe. In a lot of european countries there is a public outcry against fracking, espacially in germany. But the facts in this video are relevant to all of us. Short videos, explaining things. For example Evolution, the Universe, Stock Market or controversial topics like Fracking. Because we love science. We would love to interact more with you, our viewers to figure out what topics you want to see. If you have a suggestion for future videos or feedback, drop us a line! :) We're a bunch of Information designers from munich, visit us on facebook or behance to say hi! https://www.facebook.com/Kurzgesagt https://www.behance.net/kurzgesagt Fracking explained: opportunity or danger Help us caption & translate this video! http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCsXVk37bltHxD1rDPwtNM8Q&tab=2
Views: 5559595 Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell
Shale oil extraction is an industrial process for unconventional oil production. This process converts kerogen in oil shale into shale oil by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution. The resultant shale oil is used as fuel oil or upgraded to meet refinery feedstock specifications by adding hydrogen and removing sulfur and nitrogen impurities. Shale oil extraction is usually performed above ground by mining the oil shale and then treating it in processing facilities. Other modern technologies perform the processing underground by applying heat and extracting the oil via oil wells. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1881 Audiopedia
- Like our Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/oilvips - Geologists and geophysicists have agreed on the existence of a "prospect", a potential field. In order to find out if hydrocarbons are indeed trapped in the reservoir rock, we must drill to hit them. Bearing in mind the knowledge acquired about the substratum and the topography of the land, the best position for the installation of the drilling equipment is determined. Generally it is vertically above the point of maximum thickness of the geological layer suspected of containing hydrocarbons. The drillers then make a hole in conditions that are sometimes difficult. Of small diameter (from 20 to 50 cm) this hole will generally go down to a depth of between 2000 and 4000 meters. Exceptionally, certain wells exceed 6000 m. One of them has even exceeded 11 000 m! Certain fields can be buried at a depth equivalent to the height of 12 Eiffel Towers ... The derrick is the visible part of the drilling rig. It is a metal tower several tens of meters high. It is used to vertically introduce the drill strings down the hole. These drill strings are made up of metallic tubes screwed end to end. They transmit a rotating movement (rotary drilling) to the drilling tool (the drill bit) and help circulate a liquid called "mud" (because of its appearance) down to the bottom of the well. The drilling rig works like an enormous electric hand-drill of which the derrick would be the body, the drill strings the drive and the drilling tool the drill bit. The most usual tool is an assembly of three cones -- from which comes the name "tri cone" -- in very hard steel, which crushes the rock. Sometimes when the rock being drilled is very resistant, a single- block tool encrusted with diamonds is used. This wears down the rock by abrasion. Through the drill pipes, at the extremity of which the drill bit rotates, a special mud is injected, which the mud engineer prepares and controls. This mud cools the drill bit and consolidates the sides of the borehole. Moreover it avoids a gushing of oil, gas or water from the layer being drilled, by equilibrating the pressure. Finally, the mud cleans the bottom of the well. As it makes its way along the pipes, it carries the rock fragments (cuttings) to the surface. The geologist examines these cuttings to discover the characteristics of the rocks being drilled and to detect eventual shows of hydrocarbons. The cuttings, fragments of rock crushed by the drill bit, are brought back up to the surface by the mud. To obtain information on the characteristics of the rock being drilled, a core sample is taken. The drill bit is replaced by a hollow tool called a core sampler, which extracts a cylindrical sample of several meters of rock. This core supplies data on the nature of the rock, the inclination of the layers, the structure, permeability, porosity, fluid content and the fossils present. After having drilled a few hundred of meters, the explorers and drillers undertake measurements down the hole called loggings, by lowering electronic tools into the well to measure the physical parameters of the rock being drilled. These measures validate, or invalidate, or make more precise the hypotheses put forward earlier about the rocks and the fluids that they contain. The log engineer is responsible for the analysis of the results of the various loggings. The sides of the well are then reinforced by steel tubes screwed end to end. These tubes (called casings) are cemented into the ground. They isolate the various layers encountered. When hydrocarbons are found, and if the pressure is sufficient to allow them come to the surface naturally, the drillers do a flow check. The oil is allowed to come to the surface during several hours or several days through a calibrated hole. The quantity recovered is measured, as are the changes in pressure at the bottom of the well. In this way, a little more knowledge is gained about the probable productivity of the field. If the field seems promising, the exploration team ends the first discovery well and goes on to drill a second, even several others, several hundred or thousand meters further away. In this way, the exploration team is able to refine its knowledge about the characteristics of the field. The decision to stop drilling is made only when all these appraisal wells have provided sufficient information either to give up the exploration or to envisage future production. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Like our Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/oilvips Twitter: https://twitter.com/oilvips And Don't forget to subscribe to our channel
Views: 794281 Oil & Gas Videos
The amazing technology use by reducing oil and natural gas extraction matching from the earth bottom levels Locating the oil field #VIRALUSA Geologists and geophysicists use seismic surveys to search for geological structures that may form oil reservoirs. The "classic" method includes making an underground explosion nearby and observing the seismic response, which provides information about the geological structures underground. However, "passive" methods that extract information from naturally occurring seismic waves are also used. Other instruments such as gravimeters and magnetometers are also used in the search for petroleum. Extracting crude oil normally starts with drilling wells into an underground reservoir. When an oil well has been tapped, a geologist (known on the rig as the "mudlogger") will note its presence. Historically in the United States, in some oil fields the oil rose naturally to the surface, but most of these fields have long since been used up, except in parts of Alaska. Often many wells (called multilateral wells) are drilled into the same reservoir, to an economically viable extraction rate. Some wells (secondary wells) may pump water, steam, acids or various gas mixtures into the reservoir to raise or maintain the reservoir pressure and economically extraction rate. Drilling Main article: Oil well The oil well is created by drilling a long hole into the earth with an oil rig. A steel pipe (casing) is placed in the hole, to provide structural integrity to the newly drilled well bore. Holes are then made in the base of the well to enable oil to pass into the bore. Finally a collection of valves called a "Christmas Tree" is fitted to the top; the valves regulate pressures and control flow. Oil extraction and recovery Primary recovery During the primary recovery stage (also called the 'Kareem Stage'), reservoir drive comes from a number of natural mechanisms. These include: natural water displacing oil downward into the well, expansion of the natural gas at the top of the reservoir, expansion of gas initially dissolved in the crude oil, and gravity drainage resulting from the movement of oil within the reservoir from the upper to the lower parts where the wells are located. Recovery factor during the primary recovery stage is typically While the underground pressure in the oil reservoir is sufficient to force the oil to the surface, all that is necessary is to place a complex arrangement of valves (the Christmas tree) on the well head to connect the well to a pipeline network for storage and processing. Sometimes pumps, such as beam pumps and electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), are used to bring the oil to the surface; these are known as artificial lifting mechanisms. Secondary recovery Over the lifetime of a well, the pressure falls. At some point there is insufficient underground pressure to force the oil to the surface. After natural reservoir drive diminishes, secondary recovery methods are applied. These rely on supplying external energy to the reservoir by injecting fluids to increase reservoir pressure, hence increasing or replacing the natural reservoir drive with an artificial drive. Secondary recovery techniques increase the reservoir's pressure by water injection, natural gas reinjection and gas lift, which injects air, carbon dioxide or some other gas into the bottom of an active well, reducing the overall density of fluid in the wellbore. The typical recovery factor from water-flood operations is about 30%, depending on the properties of the oil and the characteristics of the reservoir rock. On average, the recovery factor after primary and secondary oil recovery opetions is between 35 and 40% Subscribe Now Viral USA https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCriTCGa9EmvJH1eK3b80FdA and do not forget to sheare is video
Views: 514 VIRAL USA
You’ve heard of fracking, and you’re pretty sure lots of people don’t like it, but do you know how it actually works? Learn more at HowStuffWorks.com: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/hydraulic-fracking.htm Share on Facebook: http://goo.gl/M5kx1i Share on Twitter: http://goo.gl/FbuzEW Subscribe: http://goo.gl/ZYI7Gt Visit our site: http://www.brainstuffshow.com Fracking. You’ve heard of it. You know it’s controversial. But you might not know what it actually involves. Never fear: We’re here to put some fracking knowledge in your brain. Fracking is the delightfully cheeky-sounding nickname for Hydraulic Fracturing... which sounds a little bit less delightful and more like something you do to your enemies in Starcraft. But no! It is something we do to rocks. In the simplest terms, hydraulic fracturing is a way of getting more of the valuable fluids, like oil and natural gas, out of geologic formations under the ground. Deep under earth’s surface, there are deposits of rock that have huge reserves of oil and natural gas within them. But these fossil fuels aren’t like big lakes where you can just stick a straw in and suck. No, these reserves of oil and natural gas are found locked up in pores distributed throughout vast layers of rock, like shale. So how do you get them out at a reasonable pace? Let’s look at a typical fracking setup for something like shale gas: You start with a deep, vertical well, drilling a hole down to the level of the shale you want to mine. The depth will vary, but just for example, one company claims its average fracking well depth is 7,700 feet. That’s deep: almost one and a half miles, or about 2.3 kilometers. When you’re at the right depth, you take a 90-degree turn and continue to drill horizontally, parallel to the target rock layer. This horizontal section of the well can also travel thousands of feet. Now here’s where the “fracturing” comes in. First, you open up holes in the horizontal section of the pipe. Then, you vigorously push a liquid cocktail known as fracking fluid down into the borehole under high pressure. This fracking fluid is usually a mixture of water, some chemical additives -- like acids to help dissolve the rock, and gels to thicken the fluid -- and finally, solid particles called proppants – we’ll get to those in a second. When the mixture reaches the horizontal section of the pipe, it bleeds out through the holes into the surrounding rock, and the extremely high pressure causes the rock to form tons of little fractures, or cracks. Through these cracks, the reserves of fossil fuels contained in the rock can escape into the well to be pumped back up to the surface. What once was entombed in ancient rock is now on the way to powering your car or heating the water for your next shower. And those proppants I mentioned, which are often just grains of sand, help “prop” the cracks in the rock open, so the Earth’s precious bodily fluids continue to escape into the well without the miners applying continuous pressure. So that’s how it works, but then there’s the entirely separate question of whether fracking is a good idea. It’s controversial in many parts of the world. Some people claim it consumes too much fresh water, and worry about what will be done with the fracking fluid after it’s been used. And some opponents wonder if it will create earthquakes, or cause chemical contaminants to leak into our groundwater. SOURCES: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/hydraulic-fracking.htm/printable http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/media/how-hydraulic-fracturing-works/?ar_a=1 http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-14432401 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/538082/shale http://geology.utah.gov/surveynotes/gladasked/gladrocks.htm http://www.bfenvironmental.com/pdfs/ChK_-Hydraulic_Fracturing_Fact_Sheet.pdf
Views: 221815 BrainStuff - HowStuffWorks
JOHANNESBURG (miningweekly.com) -- The mining sector should adopt some of the advanced modelling techniques that are common in the oil and gas sector, Venmyn Deloitte MD Andy Clay advocates.
Views: 90 MiningWeekly
Most commonly, geologists apply seismology for oil location. In this method, shock waves are created that pass through rock layers and are then reflected back to the surface where they are measured using the seismic equipment. In some ways, this is similar to the way sonar maps surface structures. The basic premise of the seismological technique is that the numbers of sound waves reflected and the speed at which they travel are affected by the density of rock layers through which they must pass. Oil deposits will reflect sound waves differently than solid rock.
Views: 36953 SG-Sintez Llc
Oil shale, also known as kerogen shale, is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales) can be produced. Shale oil is a substitute for conventional crude oil; however, extracting shale oil from oil shale is more costly than the production of conventional crude oil both financially and in terms of its environmental impact. Deposits of oil shale occur around the world, including major deposits in the United States. Estimates of global deposits range from 4.8 to 5 trillion barrels (760×10^9 to 790×10^9 m3) of oil in place. Heating oil shale to a sufficiently high temperature causes the chemical process of pyrolysis to yield a vapor. Upon cooling the vapor, the liquid shale oil—an unconventional oil—is separated from combustible oil-shale gas (the term shale gas can also refer to gas occurring naturally in shales). Oil shale can also be burned directly in furnaces as a low-grade fuel for power generation and district heating or used as a raw material in chemical and construction-materials processing. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2466 Audiopedia
"With horizontal drilling and fracturing directly into the source rock, we're producing oil from unconventional reservoirs." Horizontal drilling directly into source rock, heating oil shale, and mining oil sands are new methods of oil extraction that release more carbon dioxide and require more water.
Views: 737 Switch Energy Alliance
http://www.twitch.tv/musicianphysician Here is a brief tutorial on how to find oil shale. Desert biome - Go to rock layer - Go 3 or 4 blocks down once you find the rock layer - branch out. Once you find regular nodes such as iron/gravel, you will find oil shale. If the video helped, please like and subscribe. Please comment for other tutorials. I'll be glad to help in any way that I can! Thanks for watching!!!
Views: 45276 Grand Spartan
This HD Documentary looks at the Fracking and Oil Drilling. The program features the quest to drill the deepest hole ever and the scientific drill ship expected to perform the feat, and also looks at drills used to recover ice cores that will unearth thousands of years of climate history.
Views: 13799 Documentary With nothing more
Learn about the process Suncor uses to extract bitumen from the oil sands: both surface mining as well as steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) while trying to minimize our impact on the environment. This video also features facts about the massive equipment used in our operations. You can read more about our oil sands operations at http://www.suncor.com/en/about/242.aspx
Views: 84522 Suncor Energy
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_shale 00:01:59 1 Geology 00:05:17 2 Resource 00:07:25 3 History 00:09:59 4 Industry 00:12:02 5 Extraction and processing 00:14:32 6 Applications and products 00:17:12 7 Economics 00:21:23 8 Environmental considerations 00:24:01 9 Extraterrestrial oil shale 00:24:30 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9674725048082944 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales). Shale oil is a substitute for conventional crude oil; however, extracting shale oil from oil shale is more costly than the production of conventional crude oil both financially and in terms of its environmental impact. Deposits of oil shale occur around the world, including major deposits in the United States. A 2016 estimate of global deposits set the total world resources of oil shale equivalent of 6.05 trillion barrels (962 billion cubic metres) of oil in place.Heating oil shale to a sufficiently high temperature causes the chemical process of pyrolysis to yield a vapor. Upon cooling the vapor, the liquid shale oil—an unconventional oil—is separated from combustible oil-shale gas (the term shale gas can also refer to gas occurring naturally in shales). Oil shale can also be burned directly in furnaces as a low-grade fuel for power generation and district heating or used as a raw material in chemical and construction-materials processing.Oil shale gains attention as a potential abundant source of oil whenever the price of crude oil rises. At the same time, oil-shale mining and processing raise a number of environmental concerns, such as land use, waste disposal, water use, waste-water management, greenhouse-gas emissions and air pollution. Estonia and China have well-established oil shale industries, and Brazil, Germany, and Russia also utilize oil shale.General composition of oil shales constitutes inorganic matrix, bitumens, and kerogen. Oil shales differ from oil-bearing shales, shale deposits that contain petroleum (tight oil) that is sometimes produced from drilled wells. Examples of oil-bearing shales are the Bakken Formation, Pierre Shale, Niobrara Formation, and Eagle Ford Formation.
Views: 20 wikipedia tts
Having your own energy sources is an important weapon in the world economy. Since 2013, the United States has made important foes of fossil-rich opponents like Saudi Arabia important in extracting shale gas and shale oil from its own soil. The price for a barrel of crude oil fell from 100 to less than $50. The Texan shale producers who survived this price tag are the new heroes of the United States. Under president Donald Trump, the shale cowboys are striving to help Europe to become independent. On research in Trumpland. Original title: Schaliecowboys Schale stone was considered worthless by the oil and gas industry in the past. They passed through on their way to expensive oil and gas that lay deeper. Until a small Texan gas company found a way in the late 1990's to win gas from hard-shelled rock. By making deep boreholes in the stone layers of the soil and injecting a large amount of water and chemicals under high pressure, shale gas and shale oil are won. With this method, later known as fracking, the energy market changed forever. In the meantime, one third of gas and oil production in the United States is a shale.And the bid consumer of energy is not only content to be independent, the country is now even an exporter of energy. OPEC, the organization of (other) oil exporting countries, keeps the oil price on the world market as low as possible, to make American production worthless. But for the moment, the oil countries do not get the shale cowboys on their knees. How does this controversial innovation put the world of energy upside down? Because this new offer of cheap energy really gives us more time to bridge the transition to a sustainable world of solar and wind energy. A few years ago, all experts and analysts went out of the Peak Oil Theory. Namely, the fossil reserves in the world were running out. The shale revolution turned this theory into old dirt in just a few years. Fracking technology opens a whole new reservoir of fossil fuels. The election of President Trump was greeted in Texas with joy and also seen as a recognition for what the shale revolution is going to be. And the future is even more rosy: recent geological research showed that hundreds of billions of dollars of shale oil are still in the so-called Wolf Camp Shale Field in West Texas. Who are the people behind this shale revolution? A portrait of the pioneers and the new Shale millionaires in Texas. Daniel Yergin (energy specialist and author of The Prize and The Quest), Dan Steward, Kent Bowker and Nick Steinsberger (Shale Gas Revolution Geologists and Pioneers), Matt Miller (Dallas Gray Gray Energy Partners), Doug Shanda (Head of Operations Cheniere Energy in Port Arthur), Tommy Taylor (Director of Fasken Oil & Ranch from Midland Texas). Originally broadcasted by VPRO in 2017. © VPRO Backlight February 2017 On VPRO broadcast you will find nonfiction videos with English subtitles, French subtitles and Spanish subtitles, such as documentaries, short interviews and documentary series. VPRO Documentary publishes one new subtitled documentary about current affairs, finance, sustainability, climate change or politics every week. We research subjects like politics, world economy, society and science with experts and try to grasp the essence of prominent trends and developments. Subscribe to our channel for great, subtitled, recent documentaries. Visit additional youtube channels bij VPRO broadcast: VPRO Broadcast, all international VPRO programs: https://www.youtube.com/VPRObroadcast VPRO DOK, German only documentaries: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCBi0VEPANmiT5zOoGvCi8Sg VPRO Metropolis, remarkable stories from all over the world: https://www.youtube.com/user/VPROmetropolis VPRO World Stories, the travel series of VPRO: https://www.youtube.com/VPROworldstories VPRO Extra, additional footage and one off's: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTLrhK07g6LP-JtT0VVE56A www.VPRObroadcast.com Credits: Director: Nordin Lasfar English, French and Spanish subtitles: Ericsson. French and Spanish subtitles are co-funded by European Union.
Views: 609165 vpro documentary
Natural gas is fundamental to our way of life - we use it for cooking, heating, electricity and power. Over 90% of the natural gas used in Queensland comes from coal seams, but how is it formed and how is it produced? Take a look at how we go about developing our coal seam gas resources safely and sustainably, as we build a new industry that will power the Queensland economy for many years to come.
Views: 1462431 Santos GLNG
Geophysics is applied to societal needs, such as mineral resources, mitigation of natural hazards and environmental protection. 🔴 Subscribe: https://bit.ly/2xcAZYW Gamma ray logging is a method of measuring naturally occurring gamma radiation to characterize the rock or sediment in a borehole or drill hole. It is a wireline logging method used in mining, mineral exploration, water-well drilling, for formation evaluation in oil and gas well drilling and for other related purposes. About World Earthquakes: World Earthquakes is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation which offers free public earthquake information services. It was founded on 11th of March, 2010, exactly one year before the Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake. Get More World Earthquakes Live: Official Site: https://bit.ly/2QuWsFA Facebook: https://bit.ly/2x4siR8 YouTube: https://bit.ly/2QoPqC0 This video is for education purpose only. ~ All Lectures "Geophysics" ~ Lecture 01: Introduction to Geophysics - https://youtu.be/9Gvv8aXh0ys Lecture 02: Wave Theory, refraction and reflection - https://youtu.be/b64fiOFqiWM Lecture 03: Petroleum, generation and migration - https://youtu.be/IDYjhJHNXtg Lecture 04: Reservoirs, trapping mechanisms, porosity - https://youtu.be/VYtVbmjKLrs Lecture 05: Electric (Wire line), SP and resistivity logs - https://youtu.be/P4jdGCU0ZlI Lecture 06: Gamma ray logs - https://youtu.be/6bjlj2kV5M8 Lecture 07: Well logging services - https://youtu.be/sYKAK8B-4kE Lecture 08: The porosity logs - https://youtu.be/uVmqtRnbUrk Lecture 09: Isopach maps. Top of formation maps - https://youtu.be/1yJqIa0tdh8 Lecture 10: Fence Post Diagrams - https://youtu.be/-4Cytf_wTHc Lecture 11: Introduction to Seismology - https://youtu.be/jXWZiDPmTm8 Lecture 12: Seismic Stratigraphy - https://youtu.be/MzGj3AatwWs Lecture 13: Sequence Stratigraphy Part 1 - https://youtu.be/hyHUfQcOTCI Lecture 14: Sequence Stratigraphy Part 2 - https://youtu.be/BfNFTiOlWuo #geophysics #gammaray #logs
Views: 25926 worldethq
Geologists have long known about huge natural gas deposits trapped in shale rock formations, but it is only over the past decade that energy companies have combined two established technologies to unlock this resource. See how Chevron uses horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing to safely produce natural gas from shale. For more about Chevron's shale gas business, visit [http://www.chevron.com/deliveringenergy/naturalgas/shalegas/]. To watch more Chevron Human Energy Stories, visit http://www.chevron.com/stories/
Views: 41599 Chevron
This is an impromptu run for oil shale. I hopped on the bike and picked a spot in the desert. This was the most trouble I had finding ore up to now, but tracked it down after a bit of extra tunneling. This time I just couldn't find a connection from the surface gravel patches to the ore. So, I changed methods on the fly and was successful. This is uncut and I fast forwarded a lot of it to keep it as short as possible. Hopefully this will give some idea of how to find oil shale.
Views: 35 Alan The Cable Guy
Environmental devastation of the land, water, and air - the largest industrial energy project in the world is extracting crude oil from bitumen found beneath the pristine boreal forest of Alberta, Canada. Effecting a land mass equivalent in size to Florida or England, Both industry and government are putting money before the health and security of its people and the environment. Tar sands take 3 barrels of water to process every barrel of oil extracted. Ninety percent of this water becomes so toxic that it must be stored in tailing ponds. Unfortunately these ponds regularly leach pollution into the third largest watershed in the world. Water depletion, exploitation, privatization and contamination has become one of the most important issues facing humanity this century. Check out my other video on water issues: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XMmpg35Bym0 and see my other videos to learn about the dark side of fossil fuels. To learn more about tar sands, be sure to check out the featured film sources listed below. Find out more about what you can do and how to support the film makers. Crude Sacrifice http://www.crudesacrifice.com/ Dirty Oil (available to watch online) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jA_BBGuCs20 Downstream -- (available to watch online) http://www.babelgum.com/3015242/downstream.html H2Oil http://h2oildoc.com/home/ Petropolis http://www.petropolis-film.com/ Check out a new promising technology to eliminate tailing ponds: http://www.gizmag.com/ionic-liquids-used-to-process-tar-sands/18214/ Tar sands development can be minimized by blocking development of pipelines, such as Keystone XL, that carry the sludge of this incredibly polluting energy project. Tell Canada to clean up this mess and join with Bill McKibben and Josh Fox and let your voice be heard.
Views: 446292 SustainableGuidance
Oil industry experts in the United States are developing a technology to beam microwaves into shale rock in order to extract oil. Oil shale is found in more shallow formations, which contains solid organic material called kerogen. Oil can be extracted from oil shale after subjecting it to high heat. Peter Kearl, co-founder and Chiech Technology Officer of Qmast, a Colorado-based company pioneering the use of the microwave tech explained the method to Ozy.com: a microwave beam as powerful as 500 household microwave ovens would be used to extract the oil from oil shale. Once the microwave reaches the oil shale, it would heat up the water in the rock and turn them into steam, which would help releasing the oil. The rock would become transparent after the oil and water has been removed, which allows the microwave beam to penetrate further. According to Ozy.com, a single microwave extraction well could produce about 800,000 barrels of oil. This technology might also produce water while extracting oil with the amount of one barrel of water for every three barrels of oil produced. The Daily Caller reported that microwave extraction technology would have major environmental advantages but would only be about 20 percent more expensive than conventional methods. Qmast is currently planned to deployed in 2017 and is expected to start producing oil by the end of that year, Ozy.com reported. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Next Animation Studio’s News Direct service provides daily, high-quality, informative 3D news animations that fill in for missing footage and help viewers understand breaking news stories or in-depth features on science, technology, and health. Sign up for a free trial of News Direct's news animations at http://newsdirect.nextanimation.com.tw/Reuters.aspx To subscribe to News Direct or for more info, please visit: http://newsdirect.nextanimation.com.tw/Index.aspx
Views: 2667 News Direct
We’re back in the action once again after a Holiday Weekend, and this time we’re watching key levels of confluence for the most reliable trades on Wednesday morning… -------------------- Learn the Patterns with My Free Trading Course: http://www.schooloftrade.com/trial ----------------------------------------- Crude Oil appears bearish at first glance, but the recent 123-Reversal tells me to look for the beginning of a short-covering rally using a key support trend-line. E-Mini S&P is bearish into a range, and I have my eyes on sell set-ups using key confluence levels above the range on Wednesday morning. Nasdaq is bearish with a flag pattern, which is always a bit tricky, so we’re mapping out the plan for BOTH sides tomorrow morning. Gold is bullish and trading to go back into last week’s range, but it’s TODAY’s range that gives me the biggest clues for Wednesday. Euro is bearish and we’re going to keep looking to sell into the bull breakouts tomorrow morning. -------------------- Read the FULL Transcript of this Video & Download Today’s Charts: http://www.sidewaysmarkets.com/ -------------------- Trading Psychology Videos: https://www.sidewaysmarkets.com/trader-psychology/ -------------------- Become a Member and Join the Trade Room: http://www.schooloftrade.com/ -------------------- Contact the office for more information: [email protected] 800.381.2084 Skype: Megan.James12345 ---------------------------------------------- Economic News: Please remember that economic news, both scheduled and un-scheduled will increase volatility and decrease liquidity in the market in the short-term, which causes price-action to react inconsistently with the levels of support and resistance mentioned in this video. Trading during economic news reports is dangerous and highly discouraged, no matter what your level of experience. PLEASE DO NOT TRADE DURING TIMES OF MAJOR ECONOMIC NEWS ---------------------------------------------- Joseph James, SchoolOfTrade.com and United Business Servicing, Inc. are not registered investment or trading advisers. The services and content provided by SchoolOfTrade.com and United Business Servicing, Inc. are for educational purposes only, and should not be considered investment advice in any way. U.S. Government Required Disclaimer - Commodity Futures Trading Commission. Futures and Options trading have large potential rewards, but also large potential risk. You must be aware of the risks and be willing to accept them in order to invest in the futures and options markets. Don't trade with money you can't afford to lose. This is neither a solicitation nor an offer to Buy/Sell futures or options. No representation is being made that any account will or is likely to achieve profits or losses similar to those discussed on this web site. The past performance of any trading system or methodology is not necessarily indicative of future results. CFTC RULE 4.41 – These results are based on simulated or hypothetical performance results that have certain inherent limitations. Unlike the results shown in an actual performance record, these results do not represent actual trading. Also, because these trades have not actually been executed, these results may have under-or-over-compensated for the impact, if any, of certain market factors, such as liquidity. Simulated or hypothetical trading programs in general are also subject to the fact that they are designed with the benefit of hindsight. No representation is being made that any account will or is likely to achieve profits or losses similar to these being shown.
Views: 1719 Joseph James
Canada’s oil sands are recovered using two main methods; drilling and mining. This video, which explains the Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) drilling method was created by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). You can learn more about Canada's oil and gas industry at capp.ca.
Views: 325 Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers
This animation provides an overview of the coal seam gas extraction process, from drilling the well to what happens to the extracted gas and water. Also explained are some potential impacts of coal seam gas development and the technique used to increase the rate of gas and water flow, known as hydraulic fracturing (fraccing). For more information about coal seam or shale gas and current research on the social and environmental impacts of Australia’s gas industry visit http://www.csiro.au/Outcomes/Energy/Energy-from-oil-and-gas/UnconventionalGas.aspx and http://www.gisera.org.au Video transcript available here: http://www.csiro.au/news/transcripts/YouTubeTranscripts/2014/Aug/Unearthing-coal-seam-gas.html
Views: 19745 CSIRO
Controversy is heating up over an administration plan to drastically reduce the amount of federal lands available for oil shale development in the American West. The Bush administration had set aside 1.3 million acres for oil shale and tar sands development in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming. The new Bureau of Land Management plan cuts that amount by two-thirds, down to 700,000 acres, a decision that has prompted industry outrage. "What they basically did was make it so that nobody is going to want to spend money going after oil shale on federal government lands," said Dan Kish, Senior Vice President of Institute for Energy Research. Oil shale is very different from the oil reserves driving the current energy boom in places like the Bakken shale formation in North Dakota or the Niobrara in Colorado. In those areas hydraulic fracking is being used to break through layers of shale rock to reach huge pockets of oil trapped between and pump it out. Oil shale refers to shale rock itself, which contains mineralized hydrocarbons. When subject to intense pressure and extremely high temperatures, oil develops. This can be done by mining the rock first or by leaving it in place and doing the pressurized heating process deep underground. "That raises all kinds of concerns about what kind of impact that's going to have on our land and on our water," said Todd Malmsbury, spokesperson for the Colorado Wildlife Federation. "Water is the most important resource we have in the West. If we pollute that water, if we deplete that water it's going to hurt everyone out here." In a statement to Fox News, the BLM says it is not against oil shale and tar sands deveopment, but will restrict the amount of public lands available for leasing until the processes are proven, and proven safe. If shown to be viable in coming years, the agency says more federal lands may be opened up to oil shale and tar sands development. Kish said the decision will effectively put an end to the development in America of a resource with massive potential because the energy industry will simply go elsewhere. "The Chinese are inviting companies in, companies that may have done business in the United States if we'd had a better approach. And we don't even know the total extent (of the potential for oil from shale in America) but it's basically around a trillion barrels...which would be as much as the world has used since the first oil well was drilled 150 years ago." Some conservation groups applaud the administration's move to limit development now. "Think about the multi-billion dollar natural resource economy that Colorado and the West has," said Malmsbury. "Why in the world risk our heritage, our hunting and fishing traditions and all of the sustainable economy that comes from that on something that's speculative. It doesn't make sense from a dollars and cents standpoint." But the BLM's plan has certainly not made all environmentalists happy. A coalition of seven groups has notified the agency of their intent to sue, saying BLM did not take into account the impact of oil shale and tar sands development on endangered species.
Views: 127 NewsMedia24
What is oil even made of? Here's how fossil fuels form in the ocean and how scientists know where to find it. How Uranium Becomes Nuclear Fuel - http://dne.ws/1zANhcb Sign Up For The Seeker Newsletter Here - http://bit.ly/1UO1PxI Read More: The Mysterious Origin And Supply Of Oil http://www.livescience.com/9404-mysterious-origin-supply-oil.html "It runs modern society and fuels serious political tension. But where does oil really come from, and how much is left? The far-out possibilities might surprise you. Nature has been transmuting dead life into black gold for millions of years using little more than heat, pressure and time, scientists tell us." Why Is Oil Usually Found In Deserts And Arctic Areas? http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-is-oil-usually-found/ "Plate tectonics determines the location of oil and gas reservoirs and is the best key we have to understanding why deserts and arctic areas seem to hold the largest hydrocarbon reserves on earth. But there are other important locations of large reserves: river deltas and continental margins offshore. Together, these four types of areas hold most of the oil and gas in the world today." Stanford Scientists Discover How Pangea Helped Make Coal http://news.stanford.edu/2016/01/22/coal-formation-pangea-012216/ "The same geologic forces that helped stitch the supercontinent Pangea together also helped form the ancient coal beds that powered the Industrial Revolution." ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos daily. Watch More DNews on Seeker http://www.seeker.com/show/dnews/ Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez DNews on Facebook https://facebook.com/DiscoveryNews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com Sign Up For The Seeker Newsletter Here: http://bit.ly/1UO1PxI
Views: 224176 Seeker
Views: 43234 Leon1031tien
I'm Playing various PS4 games but mostly 7 Days To Die, 7DTD, 7D2D what ever you want to call it... I love building and crafting and taking time to figure out what to do next. My last FPS game was DUST514 and as you all know... It has been closed. All this time I have played with kb/m so there will be some funny moments with DS4. Please subscripe and like! Thank You!
Views: 35 MrEgomies
Enjoy the video? Subscribe for more ► http://bit.ly/SEGSubscribe In this tutorial I will be showing you how to find oils shale and craft it into Gas cans for your minibike + showing you how to make Gas barrels from Gas cans. 7 Days to Die is a survival horror video game set in an open world developed by The Fun Pimps. The game's events happen after a nuclear Third World War that destroyed an extremely large part of the world, except for some areas such as the fictional county of Navezgane, Arizona. The player is a survivor of the war who must survive by finding shelter, food and water, as well as scavenging supplies to fend off the numerous zombies (hinted to be the consequence of nuclear fallout) that populate Navezgane. Music: I Am a Man Who Will Fight for Your Honor by Chris Zabriskie is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://chriszabriskie.com/honor/ Artist: http://chriszabriskie.com/
Views: 5692 SKYEAGLE