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Wild Mouse Gut Microbiota Promotes Host Fitness and Improves Disease Resistance
 
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Scientists from the NIH’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases led research finding that transferring the gut microbes from wild mice to laboratory mice promoted fitness and significantly improved responses to an otherwise lethal flu virus infection and to colorectal cancer. By making lab mice more closely mirror real-world mice, the approach may improve the odds of success as research moves from mouse to man. The method could also help advance studies in metabolism, behavior, and endocrinology. The results published in Cell: www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(17)31065-6
Lora Hooper (UT Southwestern) 1: Mammalian gut microbiota: Mammals and their symbiotic gut microbes
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/gut-microbiota/ Overview: Dr. Hooper studies how the gut microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. In part 2, Hooper explains how a healthy gut microbes induce a host protein called RegIIIγ which helps to protect the host from infection by pathogenic gram-positive bacteria. Detailed description: In this lecture, Dr. Hooper introduces us to the fascinating world of human microbiota; the microorganisms that live within our bodies. Although we may think that most bacteria are harmful, Hooper provides ample evidence that symbiotic gut microbes are important to good human health. Her lab is interested in understanding how the microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. Using germ-free mice, they were able to demonstrate that a healthy microbiota can shape development of the host immune system and provide protection against dangerous infections like salmonella. In the second part of her talk, Hooper explains how the balance of organisms in the microbiota is maintained. By comparing DNA microarray data from normal mice and germ-free mice, Hooper’s lab was able to look for genes induced by the microbiota. They identified RegIIIγ, an important protein involved in the protection against pathogenic bacteria. They showed that RegIIIγ forms pore complexes in the membranes of gram-positive bacteria and kills them. In mice and humans, the intestinal epithelium is coated with a layer of mucus. Typically, there is a gap between gut bacteria, which are found in the outer part of the mucus layer, and the epithelial cells. Hooper’s lab showed that RegIIIγ helps to maintain this gap by preventing gram-positive bacteria from colonizing the intestinal epithelial surface. This, in turn, prevents infection of the host. Speaker Biography: Although she always was interested in science, Lora Hooper’s love for biology started after taking an introductory class at Rhodes College in Memphis, TN where she was an undergraduate. Hooper continued her graduate education in the Molecular Cell Biology and Biochemistry Program at Washington University in St. Louis where she joined Dr. Jacques Baenziger's lab. For postdoctoral training, she stayed at Washington University, in the lab of Jeffrey Gordon, where she began her studies of the interaction between gut bacteria and host cells and discovered that bacteria have the capacity to modify carbohydrates important for cell signaling. Currently, Hooper is a Professor at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. She has established one of the handful of mouse facilities that have the capacity to breed germ-free mice. Using these mice, her lab explores the symbiotic relationship between a host and its microbiota with the aim of providing insight into human health. Hooper was a recipient of the Edith and Peter O’Donnell Awards in 2013 and in 2015 she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
Views: 5688 iBiology
How the Gut Microbiome affects the Brain and Mind
 
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Get 10% off any purchase here: http://squarespace.com/WIL ▲Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/WILearned ▲Twitter: https://twitter.com/jeverettlearned ▲Bitcoin: 1CuSEgDr5raV3XKoHL7W19QRoCkE3iHt1X The gut microbiota is a huge topic and has some very significant implications for health and nutrition. Here I've explained just a tiny bit of the research. A pdf with a transcript for the video and links to sources can be found here: https://www.patreon.com/posts/17115405 ________ Books: "The Good Gut" by Justin and Erica Sonnenburg - http://amzn.to/2ETThV2 "Missing Microbes" By Martin Blaser - http://amzn.to/2Hu43jh "Brain Maker" By David Perlmutter - http://amzn.to/2sF5EiO (Not mentioned in the video, but another good book on the subject) Will have the transcript with links up soon Featured Music: Broke for Free - Meiei Chris Zabriskie - Mario Bava Sleeps in a Little Later than he expected to Broke for Free - Breakfast with Tiffany Chris Zabriskie - Divider Kevin MacLeod - Rollin at 5 For Business inquiries: [email protected]
Views: 306295 What I've Learned
Lora Hooper (UT Southwestern) 2: Mammalian gut microbiota: Maintaining symbiosis in the intestine
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/gut-microbiota/#part-2 Overview: Dr. Hooper studies how the gut microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. In part 2, Hooper explains how a healthy gut microbes induce a host protein called RegIIIγ which helps to protect the host from infection by pathogenic gram-positive bacteria. Detailed description: In this lecture, Dr. Hooper introduces us to the fascinating world of human microbiota; the microorganisms that live within our bodies. Although we may think that most bacteria are harmful, Hooper provides ample evidence that symbiotic gut microbes are important to good human health. Her lab is interested in understanding how the microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. Using germ-free mice, they were able to demonstrate that a healthy microbiota can shape development of the host immune system and provide protection against dangerous infections like salmonella. In the second part of her talk, Hooper explains how the balance of organisms in the microbiota is maintained. By comparing DNA microarray data from normal mice and germ-free mice, Hooper’s lab was able to look for genes induced by the microbiota. They identified RegIIIγ, an important protein involved in the protection against pathogenic bacteria. They showed that RegIIIγ forms pore complexes in the membranes of gram-positive bacteria and kills them. In mice and humans, the intestinal epithelium is coated with a layer of mucus. Typically, there is a gap between gut bacteria, which are found in the outer part of the mucus layer, and the epithelial cells. Hooper’s lab showed that RegIIIγ helps to maintain this gap by preventing gram-positive bacteria from colonizing the intestinal epithelial surface. This, in turn, prevents infection of the host. Speaker Biography: Although she always was interested in science, Lora Hooper’s love for biology started after taking an introductory class at Rhodes College in Memphis, TN where she was an undergraduate. Hooper continued her graduate education in the Molecular Cell Biology and Biochemistry Program at Washington University in St. Louis where she joined Dr. Jacques Baenziger's lab. For postdoctoral training, she stayed at Washington University, in the lab of Jeffrey Gordon, where she began her studies of the interaction between gut bacteria and host cells and discovered that bacteria have the capacity to modify carbohydrates important for cell signaling. Currently, Hooper is a Professor at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. She has established one of the handful of mouse facilities that have the capacity to breed germ-free mice. Using these mice, her lab explores the symbiotic relationship between a host and its microbiota with the aim of providing insight into human health. Hooper was a recipient of the Edith and Peter O’Donnell Awards in 2013 and in 2015 she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
Views: 2536 iBiology
Human Derived Gut Microbiota Modulates Colonic Secretion in Mice …  – Bhattarai et al. (2017)
 
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Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), an important neurotransmitter and a paracrine messenger in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, regulates intestinal secretion by its action primarily on 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors. Recent studies highlight the role of gut microbiota in 5-HT biosynthesis. In this study we determine if human-derived gut microbiota affect host secretory response to 5-HT and 5-HT receptor expression. We used proximal colonic mucosa-submucosa preparation from age matched Swiss Webster germ free (GF) and humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota) mice. 5-HT evoked a significantly greater increase in short circuit current (ΔIsc) in GF compared to HM mice. (Full article: https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00448.2016)
Your Microbiome and Your Brain
 
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We've talked about the trillions of microbes inside you before, but we're learning that these little creatures may have more influence than you thought! Meet your Microbiome: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ybk7E7SLbWw Hosted by: Olivia Gordon ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters—we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shoutout to Kevin Bealer, Mark Terrio-Cameron, KatieMarie Magnone, Patrick Merrithew, Charles Southerland, Fatima Iqbal, Sultan Alkhulaifi, Tim Curwick, Scott Satovsky Jr, Philippe von Bergen, Bella Nash, Chris Peters, Patrick D. Ashmore, Piya Shedden, Charles George ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4228144/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC414848/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039072/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367209/ https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-0897-4_3 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564958/ http://www.nature.com/news/the-tantalizing-links-between-gut-microbes-and-the-brain-1.18557 http://www.nature.com/news/gut-brain-link-grabs-neuroscientists-1.16316 http://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085(11)00607-X/abstract?referrer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nature.com%2Fnews%2Fthe-tantalizing-links-between-gut-microbes-and-the-brain-1.18557 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1664925/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4362231/ Images https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray848.png https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Serotonin-Spartan-HF-based-on-xtal-3D-balls-web.png
Views: 275557 SciShow
Dan Littman (NYU / HHMI) 2: Shaping of Immune Responses by the Microbiota
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/th17 Th17 cells are important in our protective immune response to bacteria and fungi. They also can exist, however, in a pathogenic form that causes autoimmune disease. In his first lecture, Dan Littman discusses the opposing roles of Th17 cells. They protect mucosal surfaces from infection with bacteria and fungi, but they can also cause autoimmune inflammation. Using a mouse model of autoimmunity called experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), Littman and his lab have shown that there are two types of Th17 cells. Non-pathogenic Th17 cells are induced by the microbiota and protect barrier surfaces, while pathogenic Th17 cells are induced by the presence of IL-23, likely the result of inflammation elsewhere in the body. Both types Th17 cells secrete the cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, however, pathogenic Th17 cells also secrete interferon gamma (IFNγ) which induces further inflammation and autoimmune disease. In the last 10 years, several classes of innate lymphoid cells have been found to share similar cytokine profiles to Th17 cells and these cells appear to be another important layer in protecting surfaces in the gut and lung from infection. In his second talk, Littman explains that different commensal microbes in our gut elicit different T cell responses - either pathogenic or non-pathogenic. His lab is beginning to identify the pathogens and decipher the pathways that determines the host T cell response. This research has important clinical relevance since a cancer patient’s microbiota may help determine their response to chemotherapy. Microbiota that induce non-pathogenic Th17 cells are protective against autoimmunity but may decrease anti-tumor immunity, while microbiota that contribute to autoimmunity may enhance anti-tumor T cell responses. Speaker Biography: Dan Littman is the Helen and Martin Kimmel Professor of Molecular Immunology in the Department of Pathology and a professor in the Department of Microbiology at the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine of New York University School of Medicine. He is also an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Littman discovered the excitement of science while he was an undergraduate student at Princeton University. He went on to receive his M.D. and Ph.D. from Washington University in St. Louis. As post-doc in Richard Axel’s lab at Columbia University, Littman isolated the genes for CD8 and CD4, molecules involved in T lymphocyte development. Littman then joined the faculty of the University of California, San Francisco where he was one of the first scientists to recognize that HIV infects T helper cells by binding to CD4. Since 1995, Littman has been based at NYU. Littman’s lab has continued to study the development and differentiation of T lymphocytes. They are interested in understanding how a normal protective immune response differs from a pathogenic response such as that found in inflammation and autoimmune disease. Currently, they are also investigating the importance of the microbiome in influencing immunity. Littman is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Science and the American Academy of Microbiology. His groundbreaking work has been recognized with many prizes including the 2004 New York City Mayor’s Award for Excellence in Science and Technology, the 2013 Ross Prize in Molecular Medicine, and the 2016 Vilcek Prize in Biomedical Science amongst others. Learn more about Littman’s research here: https://med.nyu.edu/skirball-lab/littmanlab/Home.html
Views: 875 iBiology
Fat Mice Linked to Gut Microbes
 
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Science News reports new research in rodents suggests gut microbes cause obesity by sending messages via the vagus nerve to pack on pounds. In the June 9th issue of Nature magazine, researchers report bacteria in the intestines produce a molecule called acetate, which works through the brain and nervous system to make rats and mice fat. Yale University endocrinologist Gerald Shulman led the study. He said acetate also increases levels of a hunger hormone called ghrelin, which could lead animals and people to eat even more. Biochemist Jonathan Schertzer of McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada, called the paper a “tour-de-force." https://www.sciencenews.org/article/obesity%E2%80%99s-weight-gain-message-starts-gut http://www.wochit.com This video was produced by YT Wochit News using http://wochit.com
Views: 467 Wochit News
Gut Bacteria, Microbiome Project & Your Metabolism
 
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Download my free video course about gut bacteria and your metabolism here http://bellyfateffect.com/
Views: 5529 Mike Mutzel, MS
How The Gut Microbiota Affects Our Health with Dr. Erica & Dr. Justin Sonnenburg
 
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Dr. Justin Sonnenburg is an associate professor of microbiology and immunology at Stanford and Dr. Erica Sonnenburg is a senior research scientist in the Sonnenburg lab where they the research many aspects the interaction between diet with the 100 trillion or so bacteria in the gut (specifically the colon) and how this impacts the health of the host (which in this case is a laboratory research mouse). In this episode we discuss the pivotal role fiber plays in fueling good bacteria in the gut to produce compounds that regulate the immune system including increasing the number of T regulatory cells, which are specialized types of immune cells that keep the immune system in check and prevent autoimmune responses, and how these compounds also increase other types of blood cells in the body in a process known as hematopoiesis. We also talk about how the lack of fiber in the typical American diet actually starves these good bacteria of their food. This has an effect not only on the immune system and autoimmune diseases but also results in the breakdown of the gut barrier, which leads to widespread inflammation and inflammatory diseases. Lastly, in this podcast, Dr. Erica Sonnenburg talks about how C-sections, have a negative effect on the infant’s gut due to the lack of exposure to bacteria present in the mother’s vaginal canal, and how the use of formula deprives the infant not only from the good bacteria present in Mom’s gut but also from special carbohydrates in breast milk that are good for the infant gut flora known as HMOs or human milk oligosaccharides. ▶︎ Get the show notes! https://www.foundmyfitness.com/episodes/the-sonnenburgs Links related to the Sonnenburgs: ▶︎ http://sonnenburglab.stanford.edu/ ▶︎ http://www.facebook.com/thegoodgut ▶︎http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1594206287/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=1594206287&linkCode=as2&tag=foun06-20&linkId=IOKAGDTRCL47XQN6 Links related to FoundMyFitness: ▶︎ Join my weekly newsletter: http://www.foundmyfitness.com/?sendme=nutrigenomics ▶︎ Crowdfund more videos: http://www.patreon.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Subscribe on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=foundmyfitness ▶︎ Subscribe to the podcast: http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/foundmyfitness/id818198322 ▶︎ Twitter: http://twitter.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/foundmyfitness
Views: 101529 FoundMyFitness
Taichi: Associating host genomic variation with gut microbiota in wild house mice
 
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Taichi Suzuki, University of California Berkeley; Michael Nachman, University of California, Berkeley; Kathleen Ferris, University of California, Davis; Megan Phifer-Rixey, Monmouth University; Michael Sheehan, Cornell University; Dana Lin, UC Berkeley/Museum of Vertebrate Zoology; Andreas Chavez, UC Berkeley Associating host genomic variation with gut microbiota in wild house mice Coevolution 2
Views: 101 Evolution Videos
Lee Kerkhof│The Mouse Microbiome and the MinION
 
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The human/microbiome promises to be a new avenue to treat disease. However, we need model systems and research tools to understand the mechanistic drivers for the mammalian microbiome beyond current correlative metagenomics studies. Rutgers researchers are working with the MinION and mouse models to study how host genetics/exercise behaviour/ and exposure to evironmental toxins influences the host response to aging/obesity/and inflammation through the microbiome. In one set of experiments, diet/exercise can be shown to structure the gut microbiome in male/female mice. We are also investigating a knock-out mouse for adenylyl cyclase as a longevity model to aging and exercise pre-conditioning. In other experiments, ozone expose can lead to blooms of opportunistic pathogens in mouse lungs. Additional studies in two mouse knock-outs in which the inflammatory response to ozone is specifically altered are being used to monitor the mechanisms controlling lung microbiomes.
Microbiome Gone Wild/ Cell, October 19, 2017 (Vol. 171, Issue 5)
 
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Lab mice have been the most common tool to study how the microbiome affects host physiology in health and disease, but do they really represent what’s going on in the real world? A new study surveying the microbiome of a large population of wild-caught mice suggests that this might not be the case. Check out the paper at: http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(17)31065-6. Stephan P. Rosshart, Brian G. Vassallo, Davide Angeletti, Diane S. Hutchinson, Andrew P. Morgan, Kazuyo Takeda, Heather D. Hickman, John A. McCulloch, Jonathan H. Badger, Nadim J. Ajami, Giorgio Trinchieri, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Jonathan W. Yewdell, and Barbara Rehermann (2016). Wild Mouse Gut Microbiota Promotes Host Fitness and Improves Disease Resistance. Cell 171. And read more great research at http://www.cell.com/cell/home.
Views: 1307 Cell Press
Human gut microbes slim mice
 
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The mix of microbes living inside the gut can protect against obesity, but a healthy diet is critical, according to Washington University School of Medicine scientists who transplanted intestinal microbes from obese and lean twins into mice and fed the animals different diets. Animation by Vanessa Ridaura and Victor Ridaura. https://source.wustl.edu/2013/09/altering-mix-of-gut-microbes-prevents-obesity-but-diet-remains-key-factor/
The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Colon Cancer - ASM Live 2013
 
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Could the bacterial populations in your intestines predict the onset of colon cancer? Participants will discuss new research in mouse models that suggests a major shift in microbial population dynamic prior to the onset of tumors as well as the general promise microbiome research holds for the diagnosis and potential management of other diseases. Joseph Zackular, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States David Relman, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States
Immunology Advance: How Gut Infections Cause Long-Term Damage
 
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NIAID postdoctoral fellows Tim Hand, Ph.D., and Denise Morais da Fonseca, Ph.D., describe results from a mouse study showing that a single gut infection can disrupt the dialogue between the immune system and the microbiota, potentially setting the stage for chronic inflammatory diseases. Read more at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/immuneSystem/Pages/BelkaidCellFeature.aspx Reference: Fonseca DM, Hand TW et al. Microbiota-dependent sequelae of acute infection compromise tissue-specific immunity. Cell DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.08.030 (2015).
Views: 1076 NIAID
Diet, the Microbiome, and Autism
 
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Can mom's diet during pregnancy impact offspring social behavior? In this video, Mauro Costa-Mattioli and colleagues at Baylor College of Medicine describe a potential link between mouse maternal diet-induced changes in the gut microbiome and autism-like social behavior in offspring. The paper can be found at: http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674%2816%2930730-9. The paper authors are: Shelly A. Buffington, Gonzalo Viana Di Prisco, Thomas A. Auchtung, Nadim J. Ajami, Joseph F. Petrosino, and Mauro Costa-Mattioli. Read the release: https://www.bcm.edu/news/neuroscience/species-gut-bacteria-autism-related-behavior
Utilizing Gnotobiotic Mice to Understand the Role of the Microbiome in Murine Disease Models
 
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The environmentally exposed surfaces of mammals, such as the skin, mouth, gut, and vagina, are colonized by a diverse ecosystem of microbes. Though many of these bacteria - particularly those of the distal gut - are considered symbiotic, the microbiome has the capacity to induce both pro- and anti- inflammatory responses. Accumulating evidence suggests that a properly balanced gut microbiome is crucial for a correctly functioning immune system, and that imbalances in the microbial community of the intestine are linked to a multitude of auto-inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. This symposium will discuss the roles of the microbiome in murine models of various inflammatory disease states, and the advantages to utilizing germ-free/gnotobiotic mice when probing disease models with a microbiome component.
Views: 282 Biomodels, LLC
Rob Knight: How our microbes make us who we are
 
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Rob Knight is a pioneer in studying human microbes, the community of tiny single-cell organisms living inside our bodies that have a huge — and largely unexplored — role in our health. “The three pounds of microbes that you carry around with you might be more important than every single gene you carry around in your genome,” he says. Find out why. TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design -- plus science, business, global issues, the arts and much more. Find closed captions and translated subtitles in many languages at http://www.ted.com/talks/rob_knight_how_our_microbes_make_us_who_we_are Follow TED news on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/tednews Like TED on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TED Subscribe to our channel: http://www.youtube.com/user/TEDtalksDirector
Views: 219402 TED
Exercise and gut bacteria
 
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We’re learning what a vital role good gut bacteria play in immune health, brain health, mood, and, of course, gut health. One of the best health quotes of all time is… “Health comes from above, down, inside, out” We also know that the best way to beef up your good gut bacteria is through eating lots of different kinds of vegetables and fruits every day. But researchers have discovered yet another way to promote healthy gut bacteria: Regular exercise. Our digestive tract is home to trillions of gut bacteria that weigh about three to four pounds all together, and are made up of over a 1,000 different species and 5,000 strains. This is the very definition of a symbiotic relationship. Our body depends on these gut bacteria to: • Metabolize nutrients • Protect the intestinal wall • Produce vitamin K and short chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are important for immune health • Maintain health of the digestive tract • Regulate immunity • Prevent inflammation • Promote good brain health and function - infant many studies are even finding that Parkinsons may actually start in the gut and work its way up the vagus nerve into the brain. But that is another post for another blog. Very interesting stuff though. As our understanding of healthy gut bacteria evolves, so does the information on how to cultivate your own “microbiome” while inhibiting overgrowth of “bad” bacteria that are infectious and inflammatory. This imbalance of good and bad bacteria is often what is referred as dysbiosis - Too many bad bacteria and not enough good bacteria. Initially, fermented foods and probiotics were thought to be the main recourse for improving gut health, and they do go a long ways. But, they are not the only way. Then we learned eating a diet comprised primarily of vegetables and fruits and continually changing up the produce you eat is a great way to develop a rich and diverse gut bacteria population. Now, scientists have used both a mouse study and a human study to show regular exercise, independent of diet or other factors, also promotes healthy gut bacteria. Meaning that if you do nothing other than exercise you can beneficially change your gut bacteria. In the first study, researchers transplanted fecal material from both exercised and sedentary mice into mice with sterile guts. The activity level of the mice receiving the transplants clearly mirrored that of their donors, showing that the kind of gut bacteria we have plays a role in how inclined we are to be sedentary or active. The exercised mice recipients also showed more bacteria that produce butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) that promotes healthy intestinal cells, reduces inflammation, and increases energy. They also were more resistant to ulcerative colitis. N-butyrate is THE most important short chain fatty acid. In the second study, researchers tracked the composition of gut bacteria in 18 lean and 14 obese adults as they transitioned from a sedentary lifestyle, to an active one, and then back to a sedentary one. Their exercise routine consisted of 30 to 60 minutes of cardiovascular exercise three times a week for six weeks. Their diets remained the same. For the full blog article and links visit: http://premierifm.com/blog_files/exercise-and-gut-bacteria.html
Views: 195 Dr. Craig Mortensen
Oral microbiome stability and gut microbiome connection to MS - Microbial Minutes
 
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📄 Papers discussed: Cekanaviciute E. et al. Gut bacteria from multiple sclerosis patients modulate human T cells and exacerbate symptoms in mouse models. PNAS. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/09/05/1711235114 Berer K. et al. Gut microbiota from multiple sclerosis patients enables spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. PNAS. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/09/05/1711233114.full · Stat news: https://www.statnews.com/2017/09/11/gut-microbiome-multiple-sclerosis/ · Genetic Literacy Project: https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2017/09/19/multiple-sclerosis-diseases-exacerbated-gut-microbes/ Gomez A. et al. Host Genetic Control of the Oral Microbiome in Health and Disease. Cell Host and Microbe. http://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/fulltext/S1931-3128(17)30346-3 Shaw L. et al. The human salivary microbiome is shaped by shared environment rather than genetics: evidence from a large family of closely related individuals. mBio. http://mbio.asm.org/content/8/5/e01237-17.full Cell Host and Microbe commentary: http://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/fulltext/S1931-3128(17)30351-7?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS1931312817303517%3Fshowall%3Dtrue Mamantopoulos M. et al. Nlrp6- and ASC-dependent inflammasomes do not shape the commensal gut microbiota composition. Immunity. http://www.cell.com/immunity/abstract/S1074-7613(17)30318-7 · PubPeer discussion thread: https://pubpeer.com/publications/58583AEA81F7008C1147F11A996C11#4 Chevalier A. et al. Massively parallel de novo protein design for targeted therapeutics. Nature. https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature23912.html · Scicasts.com: https://scicasts.com/channels/bio-it/1858-drug-development/12928-mini-protein-rapid-design-method-opens-way-to-create-new-class-of-drugs/ · Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News (with video): http://www.genengnews.com/gen-news-highlights/novel-technique-designs-mini-proteins-that-may-lead-to-new-types-of-therapeutics/81254982 · Phys.org: https://phys.org/news/2017-09-mini-protein-rapid-method-class-drugs.html Zhu Z. et al. Zika virus has oncolytic activity against gioblastoma stem cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine. http://jem.rupress.org/content/early/2017/09/05/jem.20171093 · New Scientist: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2146356-we-may-be-able-to-use-zika-virus-to-attack-brain-cancer-cells/ · Science Daily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/09/170905093550.htm · CBS: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/could-zika-virus-help-battle-deadly-brain-cancer/ Subscribe to ASM's YouTube channel at https://goo.gl/mOVHlK Learn more about the American Society for Microbiology at http://www.asm.org Become a member today at http://www.asmscience.org/join Interact with us on social at: Facebook Show your support and get updates on the latest microbial offerings and news from the ASM. http://www.facebook.com/asmfan ASM International Facebook Groups Join an ASM International Facebook Group and connect with microbiologists in your region. http://www.asm.org/index.php/programs/asm-international-facebook-groups Twitter Follow all the latest news from the Society. http://www.twitter.com/ASMicrobiology Instagram Outstanding images of your favorite viruses, fungi, bacteria and parasites http://www.instagram.com/asmicrobiology/
Intermittent fasting can restructure your gut?!! (New study related to diabetes)
 
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In this new study related to diabetes the gut microbiota is examined in mice to determine if it can literally restructure your gut to prevent diabetic side effects such as Retinopathy. I do a quick dive into the study with a nice concise summarization to allow you to understand what is happening and the results! Enjoy! ► PATREON → https://www.patreon.com/Fledgefitness ► S U B S C R I B E → http://tinyurl.com/z4aylr4 ► THE JUMP ROPE → https://fledgefitness.com/fledge-fitness-jump-rope/ * I'm not a nutritionist nor am I a doctor all information given has been gathered by personal experience and information that I researched and compiled over the years. Always consult a physician before starting a new diet, eating regiment, or workout plan. Enjoy the video! Are there any aspects of Intermittent Fasting that you would like me to touch on? If so let me know in the comments section below. Visit our site for all your fitness needs: https://fledgefitness.com/ Like us on Facebook: http://tinyurl.com/zclncp6 Follow us on Instagram @FlegdeFitness http://tinyurl.com/hjx84en Follow me on snapchat: fledgefitness
Views: 16384 Fledge Fitness
Fecal transplants & why you should give a crap | Mark Davis | TEDxSalem
 
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How swallowing someone else's poop could save your life! Dr. Mark Davis is a Portland-based naturopath who specializes in stomach and intestinal health. He is an expert in fecal transplantation, having successfully administered it for patients of many conditions. Davis cofounded Microbiomes, LLC, which was the first group in the U.S. to offer a fecal transplant capsule, which is taken orally. He hopes that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will eventually allow more patients to benefit from fecal transplantation. Live interpretation by Ben Cavaletto, post interpretation by Mish Ktejik. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx
Views: 39644 TEDx Talks
Daisy's Discovery: Gut Microbiota Linked to Age Related Conditions
 
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Georgia Institute of Technology Biology 1520 group project
Views: 60 Ella Torch
HOW STRESS IS RELATED TO GUT MICROBIOTA
 
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REFERENCES Bailey, MT, Dowd, SE, Parry, NMA, Galley, JD, Schauer, DB & Lyte, M 2010, ‘Stressor exposure disrupts commensal microbial populations in the intestines and leads to increased colonization by Citrobacter rodentium’, Infection and Immunity, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 1509-1519. Bercik, P, Denou, E, Collins, J, Jackson, W, Lu, J, Jury, J, Deng, Y, Blennerhassett, P, Macri, J, McCoy, KD, Verdu, EF & Collins, SM 2011, ‘The intestinal microbiota affect central levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and behaviour in mice’, Gastroenterology, vol.141, no. 2, pp. 599-609. Carabotti, M, Scirocco, A, Maselli, MA, Severi, C 2015, ‘The gut-brain axis: interactions between enteric microbiota, central and enteric nervous systems’, Annals of Gastroenterology : Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology, vol. 28, no.2, pp.203-209. Foster, JA & Neufeld, KM 2013, ‘Gut-brain axis: how the microbiome influences anxiety and depression’, Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 305-312. Foster, J, Rinaman, L and Cryan, J, 2017, ‘Stress & the gut-brain axis: Regulation by the microbiome’, Neurobiology of Stress, pp.1-13. Gunawardene AR, Corfe BM, Staton CA 2011, ‘Classification and functions of enteroendocrine cells of the lower gastrointestinal tract’, International Journal of Experimental Pathology, vol.92, no.4, pp.219-231. Integrative HMP Research Network Consortium 2014, ‘The Integrative Human Microbiome Project: dynamic analysis of microbiome-host omics profiles during periods of human health and disease’, Cell Host Microbe, vol. 3. J Clin Invest. 2007;117(1):13-23. doi:10.1172/JCI30227 Moloney, RD, Desbonnet, L, Clarke, G, Dinan, TG & Cryan, JF 2014, ‘The microbiome: stress, health and disease’, Mammalian Genome, vol. 25, no. 1-2, pp. 49-74. O’Mahony, SM, Marhesi, JR, Scully, P, Codling, CC, Ceolho, AM, Quigley, EMM, Cryan, JF & Dinan, TG 2009, ‘Early life stress alters behaviour, immunity, and microbiota in rats: implications for irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric illnesses’, Biological Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 263-276. Peterson, J, Garges, S, Giovanni, M, McInnes, P, Wang, L, Schloss, J, Bonazzi, V, McEwa, J, Howcroft, T, Karp, R, Lunsford, R, Wellington, C, Belechew, T, Wright, M Giblin, C, David, H, Mills, M, Salomon, R, Mullins, C, Akolkar, B, Begg, L, Davis, C, Grandison, L, Humble, M, Khalsa, J, Little, A, Peavy, H, Pontzer, C, Portney, M, Sayre, M, Starke-Reed, P, Zakhari, S, Read, J, Watson & B, Guyer, M 2009, ‘The NIH Human Microbiome project’, Genome Research, vol. 12, 2317–2323. Rea, K, Dinan, TG & Cryan, JF 2016, ‘The microbiome:a key regulator of stress and neuroinflammation’, Neurobiology of Stress, vol. 4, 23-33. Sudo, N, Chida, Y, Aiba, Y, Sonoda, J, Oyama, N, Yu, X, Kubo, C & Koga, Y 2004, ‘Postnatal microbial colonization programs the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system for stress response in mice’, The Journal of Physiology, vol. 558, no. 1, pp. 263-275. Edit: reference for image of endocrine cell, J Clin Invest. 2007;117(1):13-23. doi:10.1172/JCI30227
Views: 346 Jackie S
Gut–brain axis - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "gut–brain axis" refers to the biochemical signaling taking place between the gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system, often involving intestinal microbiota, which have been shown to play an important role in healthy brain function. The gut microbiota communicates with the Central nervous system through different pathways and influences the brain, more specifically its function and its behaviour. Several studies shows that the gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of anxiety, pain, cognition and mood. These studies used germ-free animals compared to normal animals, which were later exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic bacteria and antibiotic drugs. The gut-brain axis is an emerging concept that could be helpful for developing new therapeutic strategies for complex CNS disorders by modifying the gut microbiota. Research suggests that the gut–brain axis, a bidirectional neurohumoral communication system in the human body, functions as a pathway for the gut microbiota to modulate brain function of its host. The postnatal microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract results in a long-lasting impact on the neural processing of sensory information regarding the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response. Early postnatal bacterial colonization in germ free mice contribute the development of central nervous system. A recent study showed that mice whose diets were supplemented with the "Bifidobacterium breve" show elevated concentrations of fatty acids in the brain, including arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are known to play important roles in neurodevelopmental processes, including neurogenesis. The c-Fos activation in the paraventricular nucleus was rapidly induced by the inoculation of "Bifidobacterium infantis". Tryptophan metabolism was modulated by "Bifidobacterium infantis", suggesting that the normal gut microbiota can influence the precursor pool for serotonin, which is correlated to neurophysiological behavior. Anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes were relieved in GF mice compared with specific pathogen free mice. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gut%e2%80%93brain+axis, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
Views: 371 Wiz Science™
Mixed organization of gut bacteria is revealed by microbiome imaging technology
 
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IMAGE Bacteria in a model human gut microbiome established in a germfree mouse. Each bacterial species is lit up with a different colored probe, creating a map of the communitys spatial... view more  Credit Jessica Mark Welch and Yuko Hasegawa, MBL WOODS HOLE, Mass. Disruptions in the microbiome of the human gut are correlated with several diseases, including obesity and cancer. Yet little is known about the spatial organization of the nearly 1,000 bacterial species in the human gut, which can influence how the species interact with each other and with their host. In a new collaborative study, scientists from the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, the Forsyth Institute, and Washington University in St. Louis established a simplified, model human gut microbiome in germfree mice and revealed its structure through imaging technologies developed at the MBL. The study is published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. We thought we would see clusters of bacteria, with some species congregating around food particles and others abundant in the mucus layer of the gut, which separates the bacteria from host tissue, says MBL scientist Jessica Mark Welch, the lead author of the study. Instead, we saw a mixed community, where each cell tended to be next to cells of a different species. The bacterial communities near the mucus layer and in the guts interior the lumen, where digested food is pushed through by muscular contractions, looked similar. The study suggests the host is mixing the microbes and preventing large clusters of single kinds of bacteria from forming, Mark Welch says. The host does this by sloughing mucus and epithelial cells into the lumen, and by mechanically mixing the contents of the gut. It may be that this mixing creates an evolutionarily stable microbial community. No one has looked at a complex microbial community in the gut this way before, says senior author Gary Borisy, a senior research investigator at the Forsyth Inst... Thank for watching, Please Like Share And SUBSCRIBE!!!
Fish, Pigs, Mice — and Gut Bacteria?
 
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www.dailyrxnews.com What if you could reap the health benefits of fish oil without ever having to give up other fats? A new study from Sweden, that looked at the differences in gut bacteria of mice fed different diets, found that a diet high in fish oil produced one kind of bacteria while a diet high in lard produced a different kind. These findings raise the possibility of transplanting the gut bacteria from someone whose diet is high in fish oil into someone whose diet is high in lard to protect against weight gain and inflammation.
Views: 41 dailyRx
Life in the Lab: Working with human gut microbiota
 
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Hilary Browne is a PhD student, working in the infection genomics group at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. In this film he describes how to work safely in the lab with bacteria from the human gut including culturing them on agar plates and extracting the DNA for genome sequencing. The infection genomics programme uses a variety of different research approaches to study the biology and evolution of disease-causing organisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites and understand how they cause disease in humans and other animals. This is one of a series of Life in the lab films providing a more in-depth insight to some of the laboratory processes used by different teams at the Wellcome Sanger Institute. The film has been developed to help support the OCR Cambridge Technical Level 3 in laboratory skills.
Views: 713 yourgenome
Gut Microbiota and Ageing - Simin Nikbin Meydani
 
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Is the secret to health in later life hidden in our gut? Simin Nikbin Meydani from Tufts University, USA, says disease is not an inevitable part of ageing, and bacteria in our gut may play a key role in how we age.
Views: 1150 néva
Meditation,  Microbiome & Gut Health - Vincent Pedre, MD
 
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Access the show notes & MP3 Audio: http://highintensityhealth.com/drpedre Learn more about Dr. Pedre's new book, Happy Gut: http://amzn.to/1ISKJun Key Discussion Points: 02:30 Multiple Microbiomes: We have multiple different adapted microbiomes and they vary depending upon the conditions under which they live. We are learning how this microbiome interacts with us, how it creates health, and how an imbalance creates disease. 3:21 Microbiome and our Minds: In animal studies, we find that the microbiome controls how our minds work. A mouse experiment took gut bacteria from risk taker mice and placed it in anxious mice, the anxious mice took on the bolder mice characteristics. 4:17 Directed Probiotics: Dr. Pedre thinks we are heading toward having probiotics directed at specific conditions. A patient of his was in urgent care in Sweden and was prescribed an antibiotic with a prescription of a probiotic that will protect the patient from the consequences of a decimated gut microbiome. The alteration of gut bacteria from antibiotics can last anywhere from 4 months to 12 months, though mouth bacteria can normalize in a week. The medicine of the future is going to take in consideration the effect of gut bacteria. 08:07 Probiotics and Antibiotics: Dr. Pedre will often put his patient on a probiotic while they are on the antibiotic, but dosed at a different time. He might temporarily increase the dose of the antibiotic when the patient is off the antibiotic. 09:01 Resistant Antibiotics: Different antibiotics affect the microbiome differently. Clindamycin causes a 4 month shift. Cipro caused a 12 month gut microbiome shift. Cipro is commonly prescribed for UTIs and gastroenteritis. Cipro with Flagyl is a favorite of GI doctors. It was used so often on gonorrhea that gonorrhea is resistant to Cipro and an injected antibiotic must be used. Because of the heavy use of antibiotics, 2 million Americans each year develop an antibiotic resistant infections. Out of those, 23,000 people die. Among the deadliest are C. diff (clostridium difficile, which has become resistant to both Flagyl and Vancomycin, but can be resolved within 48 hours with a fecal transplant.) CRE (Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infection) and neisseria gonorrhoeae. Today’s medicine attacks the microbiome with no regard or respect. 16:40 Soil Microbiome: There could be a billion organisms in just one tablespoon of soil. It is the soil’s microbiome. When glyphosate is sprayed on the soil, it acts as a chelating agent to starve weeds of minerals, but also kills and alters the microbiome in the soil, which we need to bind nitrogen and make into food that the plants use. The majority of the oxygen is made from small organisms like green algae and phytoplankton in the ocean, and even cyanobacteria. 24:48 The Physical Gut and the Emotional Gut: Research has shown that gut flora impacts behavior. A probiotic supplement can help with depression, but Dr. Pedre embraces a holistic approach to treating depression, and other issues. It is not about one treatment, but how a great number of tools can work together to give optimal health.
Views: 3589 High Intensity Health
Podcast #177 - Dr. Grace Liu: Fixing the Gut Microbiome with Resistant Starch and Probiotics
 
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Dr. Grace Liu is renowned for the information she publishes on the blog, Animal Pharm, under the name “Dr. BG”. She is a Food and Nutritional Scientist and Functional Medicine Practitioner with a doctorate in Pharmacology, and one of the most knowledgeable people on the hot button topics of resistant starch (RS) and its effects on the health of the gut microbiome. She uses her expertise in the pharmaceutical world to explore the various scientific, nutritional, and pharmacological ins and outs of optimal health. Why you should listen – Hal comes on Bulletproof Radio to discuss the difference between resistant starch and regular starch, how resistant starch works in the body, how to prioritize the different testing methods for determining gut health, and the things you can do to start fixing your gut immediately. Enjoy the show! For more info & to follow Dr. Grace: Dr. BG Animal Pharm Blog - http://drbganimalpharm.blogspot.com/ The Gut Guardians Podcast – Restore the Flora! - http://restoretheflora.com/podcast-2/ Twitter - @Gut_Goddess - https://twitter.com/Gut_Goddess Resources: The Definitive Guide to Resistant Starch (Mark’s Daily Apple) - http://www.marksdailyapple.com/the-definitive-guide-to-resistant-starch/ Gut bacteria’s fatty acid (butyrate) boosts immune system, reducing inflammation - http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/268786.php Glycemix Index (GI) - http://www.glycemicindex.com/about.php Starch polysaccharides in human nutrition (Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition) - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22747080 FODMAPS (Chris Kresser) - http://chriskresser.com/fodmaps-could-common-foods-be-harming-your-digestive-health Intestinal Dysbiosis - http://altmedrev.com/publications/9/2/180.pdf Bacteroides - https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Bacteroides Conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass (American Journal of Clinical Nutrition) - http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/85/5/1203.full Intestinal microbiota in aged mice is modulated by dietary resistant starch (FEMS Microbiology Ecology) - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22909308 uBiome - http://ubiome.com/ Genova 2200 GI Testing - https://www.gdx.net/core/interpretive-guides/GI-Effects-IG.pdf American Gut - http://humanfoodproject.com/americangut/ Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/gerd.html Efficacy of increased resistant starch consumption in human type 2 diabetes (Endocrine Connections) - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671124 Yacon syrup: beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance in humans (Clinical Nutrition) - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19254816 Inulin - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24969566 Fructooligosaccharides (Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry) - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20119826 Prevotella - https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Prevotella Bifidobacterium - https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Bifidobacterium Oxalic Acid - http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/oxalic_acid Trypsin inhibitors - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trypsin_inhibitor Cecum - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecum Curcumin - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17569205 AMP Kinase (AMPK) - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AMP-activated_protein_kinase Telomeres - http://www4.utsouthwestern.edu/cellbio/shay-wright/intro/facts/sw_facts.html Clostridia - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8219/ Betaine HCl - http://amzn.to/1u0mzQD Lactobacillus - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/790.html Helicobacter Pylori (Mayo Clinic) - http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/h-pylori/basics/definition/con-20030903 Neurosciences NeuroScreen Essential Neurotransmitter Saliva Test - https://www.neurorelief.com/index.php?p=testDet&testID=238&TestPanelName=NeuroScreen Essential NutrEval FMV Urine Organic Acid Test - https://www.gdx.net/product/nutreval-fm-nutritional-test-blood-urine Akkermansia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akkermansia_muciniphila Microflora in centenarians and young subjects (Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology) - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22955365 Ox Bile - http://amzn.to/1yofh0s AOR Probiotic-3 - http://amzn.to/1vUySCd Align GI - http://amzn.to/1yxjZbd Garden of Life Primal Defense Ultra - http://amzn.to/1FUqHIA Prescript Assist - http://amzn.to/1FUqAfZ Bulletproof: Uncovering Resistant Starch with Dr. Grace Liu – Podcast #117 - http://bit.ly/1yodubZ Bulletproof Diet Book - http://www.orderbulletproofdietbook.com/ Is there such a thing as Bulletproof Resistant Starch? - http://bit.ly/1vUxu2x The Kale Shake is Awesome – So Upgrade It - http://bit.ly/1rqt2YG Donna Gates on Body Ecology – Podcast #122 - http://bit.ly/12IQl75
Views: 24010 Bulletproof
[Conférence] K. XAVIER - Bacterial interspecies quorum sensing in the mammalian gut microbiota
 
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Conférence : Symbiose et cohabitation Lien de la conférence : http://www.academie-sciences.fr/fr/Colloques-conferences-et-debats/symbioses-et-cohabitation.html 00:00:00 Introduction 00:00:29 Gut Microbiome – is essential for host health 00:02:20 How cell-cell signalling in bacteria influence the behavior of bacterial communities? 00:03:21 Quorum Sensing 00:04:26 light 00:05:52 Quorum Sensing controls different bacterial behaviours 00:06:52 The Autoinducer-2 [AI-2] Signal 00:07:42 Autoinducer-2 – Regulated Behaviors 00:08:27 Colonization resistance of the microbiota against invading microbes 00:09:51 Antibiotics-induce breakdown of colonization resistance 00:11:56 AI-2 degradation pathway in Escherichia coli 00:13:31 Manipulating AI-2 in the mouse gut 00:14:29 AI-2 Effect on the Gut Microbiota? 00:15:22 AI-2 Availability Affects the Gut Microbiota 00:17:29 Antibiotic-induced Dysbiosis is Sensitive to AI-2 manipulation 00:18:18 High AI-2 favors the Firmicutes, promoting AI-2 producers and counteracting the antibiotic effect 00:20:11 Manipulating Bacterial Cell-Cell Interactions to Shape and Improve Microbiota Functions 00:20:42 Towards the isolation of species that respond to AI-2 00:22:24 Questions and answers © Académie des sciences - Tous droits réservés
The GUT BIOME: artificial sweeteners;Yo-Yo diets; regaining weight?
 
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Prevmedheartrisk.com In 2015, researchers at the Weisman Institute in Israel demonstrated that saccharin, sucralose and aspartame created insulin resistance in lab mice. Antibiotic treatment and repopulation with normal bacteria cured the glucose intolerance. Other studies have shown that faecal transplants from obese humans made lab mice gain weight. In fact, gut biome or bacteria have been demonstrated to cause "yoyo" dieting effects, going back to pre-diet weights. One researcher decided to make mouse chow pellets out of breakfast cereal and pizza. Obese rats given this pizza/cereal chow did not lose weight after faecal transplant. Obese rats given regular diet did lose weight after faecal transplant. About Dr. Brewer - Ford Brewer is a physician that started as an Emergency Doctor. After seeing too many patients coming in dead from early heart attacks, he went to Johns Hopkins to learn Preventive Medicine. He went on the run the post-graduate training program (residency) in Preventive Medicine at Hopkins. From there, he made a career of practicing and managing preventive medicine and primary care clinics. His later role in this area was Chief Medical Officer for Premise, which has over 500 primary care/ prevention clinics. He was also the Chief Medical Officer for MDLIVE, the second largest telemedicine company. More recently, he founded PrevMed, a heart attack, stroke, and diabetes prevention clinic. At PrevMed, we focus on heart attack and stroke and Type 2 diabetes prevention by reducing or eliminating risk through attentive care and state-of-the-art genetic testing, imaging, labs and telemedicine options. We serve patients who have already experienced an event as well as those have not developed a diagnosis or event. Our team of senior clinicians includes internationally recognized leaders in the research and treatment of cardiovascular disease, preventive medicine and wellness. We also provide preventive medicine by telemedicine technology to over 30 states. Contact Dr. Brewer at [email protected] or visit http://prevmedheartrisk.com. -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "How to prevent a stroke: #1 cause of disability, #5 cause of death, High BP and Atrial fibrillation" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=buRtcJyLFJA -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 807 Ford Brewer
Why Is Healthy Gut Flora So Important for Weight Loss?
 
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Gut bacteria have an immense impact on our weight and body composition. But, despite their importance, we keep starving them out by eating highly processed food, and killing them with overuse of antibiotics. Visit Bites of Reason on: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/bitesofreason Twitter: https://twitter.com/BitesOfReason ____________________ Created by Krunoslav Vinicki Research / Writing / Editing/Animation Lea Kralj Jager (http://smallfox.net/) Art Danko Bundalo (Soundcloud: https://soundcloud.com/dbundalo) Narration / Script / Sound ____________________ References: 1. Gill H.S., Guarner, F. (2004). Probiotics and human health: a clinical perspective. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 80:516-526. http://pmj.bmj.com/content/80/947/516 2. Fujimura, K. E. et al., “Role of the gut microbiota in defining human health,” Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 8, no. 4 (April 2010): 435–54, http://pmid.us/20377338. 3. Turnbaugh, P. J., Hamady, M., Yatsunenko, T., Cantarel, B. L., Duncan, A., Ley, R. E., Gordon, J. I. (2009). A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature, 457(7228), 480–484. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19043404 4. Blustein, J., Attina, T., Liu, M., Ryan, M., Cox, L. M., Blaser, M. J., Trasande, L. (2013). Association of caesarean delivery with child adiposity from age 6 weeks to 15 years. International Journal of Obesity, 37, 900–906. http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v37/n7/abs/ijo201349a.html 5. Hyde, M.J., Modi, N. (2012). The long-term effects of birth by caesarean section: the case for a randomised controlled trial. Early Human Development, 88(12), 943-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23036493 6. Trasande, L., Blustein, J., Liu, M., Corwin, E., Cox, L., & Blaser, M. (2013). Infant antibiotic exposures and early-life body mass. International Journal of Obesity, 37(1), 16–23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22907693 7. Vanessa K. Ridaura, V. K. et al. (2013), Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science, 341 (6150). http://science.sciencemag.org/content/341/6150/1241214.article-info 8. OECD, Obesity and the Economics of Prevention: Fit not Fat - Korea Key Facts http://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/obesityandtheeconomicsofpreventionfitnotfat-koreakeyfacts.htm 9. Kim, E. K., An, S.Y., Lee, M. S., Kim, T. H., Lee, H. K., Hwang, W. S., Choe, S. J., Kim, T. Y., Han, S. J., Kim, H. J., Kim, D. J., Lee, K.W. (2011). Fermented kimchi reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight and obese patients. Nutrition Research, 31(6), 436-43. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21745625
Views: 3251 Bites of Reason
Gut Bacteria and Antibiotics Part 3
 
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- Does the gut bacteria (microbiota) change when someone does alot of drinking? - Changing your diet for one day changes your gut microbiota dramatically (previous study was done on mice) - Very sure that the gut bacteria(microbiota) changes as someone's diet changes - potential affects of diet for ulcerative colitis - certain bacteria grow well based on the food that is available to them in the gut - simple sugars, carbohydrates, white bread for example - complex carbohydrates, vegetable fibers, whole grains (harder to break down for body, and become primary food source to bacteria in intestines) - our own mucous is food for our gut bacteria!! -Les gave 3 patients antibiotics for his study, and he monitored the gut bacteria before/during/and after the patients took the antibiotics to see if there were changes. - towards the end of this video, he talks about some of the changes in gut bacteria that he noticed after the patients took the first round of antibiotics(CIPRO) - Within everyone's gut, there are many different strains of bacteria. In the study, some bacteria that were very small in population grew bigtime after taking antibiotics, and some didn't change, and some went down in population. What is quite interesting is that some of the closely related strains would show one going up in population while another closely related went down in population. http://www.ihaveuc.com/gut-bacteria-and-antibiotics-part-3/
Views: 1394 iHaveUC
Pediatric Gut Microbiota, Antibiotics, and Obesity
 
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References: 1. Dietitians of Canada. Gastrointestinal System – Microbiota. In: Practice-based Evidence in Nutrition [PEN]. 2016 July 27 [cited 2016 Dec 1]. Available from: http://www.pennutrition.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/KnowledgePathway.aspx?kpid=24357&trid=25391&trcatid=38. Access only by subscription. 2. Canadian Society of Intestinal Research. Gut Bacteria: Manipulating body fat, mood, and IBS by mixing up the microorganisms in your gut. Inside Tract. 2014;(190), 20-21. 3.Ridaura V, Faith J, Rey F, Cheng U, Duncan A, Gordon J, et al. Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice. Science. 2013 Sep 6, [cited November 3, 2016]; 341(6150): 1241214. Available from: http://science.sciencemag.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/content/341/6150/1241214.full 4. Koleva P, Bridgman S, Kozyrskyj, A. The infant gut microbiome: evidence for obesity risk and dietary intervention. Nutrients. 2015 March 31 [cited December 1, 2016]; 7(4): 2237-2260. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4425142/  5. Trasande L, Blustein J, Liu M, Corwin E, Cox LM, Blaser MJ. Infant antibiotic exposures and early-life body mass. International journal of obesity. 2013 Jan 1 [cited November 3, 2016];37(1):16-23. 6. Korpela K, Salonen A, Virta LJ, Kekkonen RA, Forslund K, Bork P, de Vos WM. Intestinal microbiome is related to lifetime antibiotic use in Finnish pre-school children. Nature Communications. 26 Jan 2016. [cited December 1, 2016];10410. Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms10410 7. Schwartz BS, Pollak J, Bailey-Davis L, Hirsch AG, Cosgrove SE, Nau C, Kress AM, Glass TA, Bandeen-Roche K. Antibiotic use and childhood body mass index trajectory. International Journal of Obesity. 2016 Apr 1 [cited November 3, 2016];40(4):615-21.
Views: 448 Claudia Wong
Gut microbiota and obesity, what comes first?
 
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Dr. Thomas Greiner explains that the gut microbiota is influenced by your genes, who you're born from and you diet. However the gut microbiota is different between obese and lean patients. In the future studies may discover a right mixture of the bacteria and prevent obesity.
Special microbes make anti-obesity molecule in the gut
 
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Microbes may just be the next diet craze. Researchers have programmed bacteria to generate a molecule that, through normal metabolism, becomes a hunger-suppressing lipid. Mice that drank water laced with the programmed bacteria ate less, had lower body fat and staved off diabetes — even when fed a high-fat diet — offering a potential weight-loss strategy for humans. Subscribe! http://bit.ly/AmerChemSOc Facebook! https://www.facebook.com/AmericanChem... Twitter! https://twitter.com/ACSpressroom You might also like: Press Conferences from #NOLA: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SJoMMnl6eKs&list=PLLG7h7fPoH8Jyqtiv9eOb3nfas3LDxG_p Press Conferences from #Philadelphia: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5slYZZAFYQs&list=PLLG7h7fPoH8JNXYo-fCwTiFOqba9VEpv9 Press Conferences from #SanDiego: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C9Y17zZoqB0&list=PLLG7h7fPoH8L8o4Um_LZTS2lHxorDgHAH Music: From Audioblocks Produced by the American Chemical Society, the world’s largest scientific society. ACS is a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related information and research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Join the American Chemical Society! https://bit.ly/Join_ACS
Gut Brain Connection for Anxiety, ADHD, Depression and Digestive Health
 
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We discuss the gut brain connection that can be applied to stress, anxiety, ADHD, depression, mental health, and self-improvement in general. It turns that that our intestine has many nerve endings. Scientist Michael Gershon says that our gut houses a sensitive, intelligent, organ and our bodies microbiota can play a very important role in our mental health. Having these nerve cells in the intestine allows the gut to communicate with the brain. There are various scientists who describe the gut as the enteric nervous system. According to such a model, there is constant communication between the gut and brain. Beyond a discussion of prebiotics or probiotics, it turns out that the intestine is not only home to millions of neurons. but our bodies contain an ecosystem of bacteria referred to as microbiota. Dr. Stephen Collins at McMaster University is researching microbiota. He completed research with two species of mice. One species was known to be quiet and calm and the other group aggressive. By giving each group of mice microbiota from the other, researchers could influence the behavior of the other species. Providing the aggressive mice with the microbiota from the calm mice, calmed the aggressive mice down. Providing the calm mice microbiota from the aggressive mice made them more aggressive. Dr. Collins states that these findings provide evidence that microbiota influence the brain. Another interesting fact about the gut: 95% of our bodies serotonin is produced in the gut. Serotonin acts on the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus, which is a zone that manages our emotions and takes part in the regulation of our emotions. Serotonin is one of the main neurotransmitters thought to be targeted by SSRI medications for anxiety, depression and OCD. So can bacteria influence our anxiety and our ability to handle stress? Well there is some interesting information in this regard. At the Center for Neurology for Stress in Los Angeles, Kirsten Tillisch tested the effects of probiotics in yogurt. She found that the brains of healthy women ingesting probiotics over time responded better when shown stressful images. Tillisch suggests that these findings are exciting and demonstrate the potential that taking something that can be purchased from your local market could change the brain. At Panic Attack Recovery we are former sufferers teaching others how to be proactive and take charge of their anxiety, panic attacks, ADHD, and mental health in general. We provide a comprehensive approach so that you can heal, continue in the direction of self-improvement and enjoy the life you desire! Those interested in self-help in general can also benefit from our information. We'd love to have you subscribe and join us. WE POST NEW VIDEOS EVERY WEDNESDAY! SUBSCRIBE to our YouTube Channel! https://www.youtube.com/panicattackre... GET INSTANT ACCESS to the "5 Steps to Recovery from Anxiety, Stress, Panic Attacks, and Agoraphobia" in our free, continuous email newsletter: https://panicattackrecovery.com/newsl... LET'S CONNECT! -- http://www.facebook.com/panicattackre... -- http://twitter.com/panicrecovery LISTEN TO THE PANIC ATTACK RECOVERY PODCAST: - iTunes: https://panicattackrecovery.com/PARiT... - Website: https://panicattackrecovery.com/podcast
Views: 2235 Panic Attack Recovery
Q/A: Do Artificial Sweeteners Disrupt Gut Microbiome?
 
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Firstly, I'd like to say congratulations on the weight loss. Thats an incredible amount of weight loss and I like the fact that you mentioned it because it helps highlight the importance of calories in one's diet. Moving into the question of artificial sweeteners disrupting the gut microbiome, yes they most certainly do. In fact, anything you eat does so it's no surprise that they have been found to possibly cause changes in it. Moving into the science, I want to first look at sucralose...From the Journal of Frontiers in Physiology (1), researchers wished to test the gut microbiome response to sucralose in mice. For this study, 20 male mice were used. 10 mice were feed water, and 10 mice were feed sucralose in tap water for 6 months. The concentration was 0.1 mg/ml, equivalent to the RDA in humans as being 5mg/kg/day. During different time points of the 6 month period, rRNA gene sequencing in fecal samples were taken to perform a fecal metabolic analysis. A two tailed Welches t test was used to compare the metabolites between the control and sucralose treated mice. In figure 1, 14 bacterial genera exhibited no significant difference at baseline, but were significantly different after the 6 month period. Out of the 14, 7 decreased and 5 decreased with 2 staying the same. Now these differences were just responsible for the change in their diet, which was why they then examined the gut microbiome composition associated with proinflammatory markers which was shown in figure 2. Specifically genes associated with LPS synthess significantly increased , along with elevated levels of tock shock syndrome toxin and shiga toxin which are associated with increased interluekin production. In another study published by Nature (2), researchers added saccharin, surcralose, or aspartame to the drinking water of three groups of lean 10 week old mice. They also had control groups, including mice drinking only water or mic drinking water with glucose or sucrose. They then performed glucose tolerance tests after 15,30,60,90, and 120 minute intervals. At week 11 of feeding, the three control groups had comparable glucose tolerance curves, whereas all three artificial sweetener groups had developed significant glucose intolerance. In order to see whether this was a result of gut microbiota alteration, researchers then treated the mice with antibiotics for four weeks and then repeated the experiment. What they found was that antibiotics abolished glucose intolerance in both lean and obese mice suggesting that the glucose intolerance was mediated by the gut microbiota. All in all, I think it's say to say their is some evidence around artificial sweeteners increasing the risk of glucose intolerance caused by the mediation of the gut microbiota. If you have a soda with them every now and then, no big deal...but I would be weary in saying that it's safe to consume it everyday with no long term issues developing overtime. References: (1) Bian, X et. al. (2017). Gut Microbiome Response to Sucralose and Its Potential Role in Inducing Liver Inflammation in Mice. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, 487. http://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00487 (2) Suez, J et. al. (2014). Artificial sweetners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Nature, 514, 181 to 186. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature13793
Camu Camu may increase metabolism through the Gut Microbiome
 
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Camu Camu may increase metabolism through the Gut Microbiome The researchers found that camu camu improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and reduced the concentration of blood endotoxins and metabolic inflammation. "All these changes were accompanied by a reshaping of the intestinal microbiota. Fernando F Anhê, Renato T Nachbar, Thibault V Varin, Jocelyn Trottier, Stéphanie Dudonné, Mélanie Le Barz, Perrine Feutry, Geneviève Pilon, Olivier Barbier, Yves Desjardins, Denis Roy, André Marette. Treatment with camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) prevents obesity by altering the gut microbiota and increasing energy expenditure in diet-induced obese mice. Gut, 2018; gutjnl-2017-315565 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315565 #akkermansia_muciniphila #weightloss #metabolism
Views: 90 VHFILM
Antibiotic Exposure, The Microbiome and Obesity
 
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A number of variables can cause signficant changes in the human microbiome early in life including birth method and antibiotic exposure. Understanding these shifts is important because new research suggests that shifts in the microbiome of infants could make them more prone to gain weight as adults. Participants will discuss variables involved in the development of the infant microbiome and how it affects adult metabolism and body composition in mouse models. Laura Cox, NYU Langone Medical Center Elizabeth Costello, Stanford University School of Medicine
Diet and Gut Microbiota - mSystems
 
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Dietary modification has long been used empirically to modify symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and a diverse group of diseases with gastrointestinal symptoms. There is both anecdotal and scientific evidence to suggest that individuals respond quite differently to similar dietary changes, and the highly individualized nature of the gut microbiota makes it a prime candidate for these differences. To overcome the typical confounding factors of human dietary interventions, here we employ ex-germfree mice colonized by microbiotas of three different humans to test how different microbiotas respond to a defined change in carbohydrate content of diet by measuring changes in microbiota composition and function using marker gene-based next-generation sequencing and metabolomics. Our findings suggest that the same diet has very different effects on each microbiota’s membership and function, which may in turn explain interindividual differences in response to a dietary ingredient. Samuel A. Smits, Angela Marcobal, Steven Higginbottom, Justin L. Sonnenburg, Purna C. Kashyap Pieter C. Dorrestein, Editor Published in mSystems on 6 September 2016 Direct link: http://doi.org/10.1128/msystems.00098-16 mSystems™ publishes preeminent work that stems from applying technologies for high-throughput analyses to achieve insights into the metabolic and regulatory systems at the scale of both the single cell and microbial communities. The scope of mSystems™ encompasses all important biological and biochemical findings drawn from analyses of large data sets, as well as new computational approaches for deriving these insights. mSystems™ welcomes submissions from researchers who focus on the microbiome, genomics, metagenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, glycomics, bioinformatics, and computational microbiology. mSystems™ provides streamlined decisions, while carrying on ASM's tradition of rigorous peer review. ______________________________________________ Subscribe to ASM's YouTube channel at https://goo.gl/mOVHlK Learn more about the American Society for Microbiology at http://www.asm.org Become a member today at http://www.asmscience.org/join Interact with us on social at: Facebook Show your support and get updates on the latest microbial offerings and news from the ASM. http://www.facebook.com/asmfan ASM International Facebook Groups Join an ASM International Facebook Group and connect with microbiologists in your region. http://www.asm.org/index.php/programs/asm-international-facebook-groups Twitter Follow all the latest news from the Society. http://www.twitter.com/ASMicrobiology Instagram Outstanding images of your favorite viruses, fungi, bacteria and parasites http://www.instagram.com/asmicrobiology/
Microbes in the Gut Determine the Risk for Cancer
 
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An article published in the journal of the American Society for Microbiology called mBio showed that both inflammation and a certain microbiome contribute to the development of colon cancer in mice. Researchers transferred a stool sample from mice with colon cancer to germ-free mice and found that the incidence of colon cancer double that when compared to normal mice. They also found that giving antibiotics to these mice before and after the stool transplantation significantly reduced the incidence of colon cancer. The researchers also determined that there were specific bacteria that were associated with the increased incidence of colon cancer. The conclusion of the study was that both inflammation and the stool microflora were necessary to increase the incidence of colon cancer. For more information, please visit www.doctorsaputo.com
Views: 252 DoctorSaputo
Food for Good Gut Bacteria w/ Drs Justin & Erica Sonnenburg
 
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Episode #81: Drs  Justin and Erica Sonnenburg are two top microbial scientists at Stanford University and author of The Good Gut. In this interview these two pioneers share diet tips from their work at Stanford that can help you increase the diversity of the trillions of bacterial organisms in your gut, boost your metabolism and reduce inflammation. The Good Gut Book: http://amzn.to/1SYkEeB Read the Interview Show Notes: http://highintensityhealth.com/justin-erica-sonnenburg-top-foods-to-fuel-healthy-gut-bacteria/ --------------------------------------Lets Connect---------------------------------- ➢ Facebook https://www.facebook.com/MikeMutzelMS ➢ Listen to the Audio in iTunes: http://highintensityhealth.com/itunes ➢ Instagram https://www.instagram.com/metabolic_mike --------------------------------------Key Takeaways--------------------------------- 2:29 The Power of Microbes: Over the past decade there has been an awakening about the gut, microbiome and genetics. Microbes connect in major ways to human biology with digestion, metabolism, systemic immune function and central nervous system. There is no part of our body that is not touched, directly or indirectly, by these microbes in some way. 4:32 Microbial Digestion: Gut microbes rely upon complex carbohydrates (dietary fiber) to complete their functions in the gut. They digest our resistant complex polysaccharides that come from plant material; fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. At the same time, they release compounds into our gut that are soaked into our bloodstream that do things like help maintain our immune system balance and help us decide whether we are storing calories or burning them. 5:56 Feed Your Microbes: High fiber foods feed your microbes. The Sonnenburgs make sure that their family consumes high fiber foods at every meal. 7:30 Microbial Diversity – The Jelly Bean Analogy: Think of each species of gut bacteria as a color of jelly bean. The Western diet will be a simple mix of a few colors. Modern day hunter gatherers or those who live similarly to those at the beginning of agriculture, have many more colors of jelly beans. They have species of gut bacteria that are not seen in the Western world. In the environment, if an ecosystem loses its diversity, it’s a bad thing. Potentially, that is the case with our microbial ecosystem? 9:25 A Skewed Perspective of Microbes: Research has primarily focused on Westerners, but now research is looking into populations around the globe. The NIH Human Microbiome Project spent years working to determine what a healthy microbiota is and working to determine how the microbiome changes in different disease states. 10:20 Microbiota, a Key Player in Disease: Just because someone is healthy, doesn’t mean they have a healthy microbiota. Evidence is building that shows that most Americans have unhealthy gut microbiota, which predisposes us to many Western diseases. Metabolic syndrome, heart disaease, autoimmune diseases, cancers, and the like, are all become more prevalent. It is possible that there are individual causes for these diseases, but more likely, that there are only a few causes and that gut microbiota is central of them. 11:54 Traditional Societies: Humans have spent 95% of our time on the earth as hunter gatherers. By looking at hunter gatherer societies today, we can get a better understanding of what our gut microbiota is supposed to be. 13:39 The High MAC Diet: Microbiota Accessible Carbohydrates are dietary fiber that we consume to feed our microbiota. Tubers eaten by hunter gatherers have not been modified by agriculture, making it texturally and nutritionally different from what we eat. Since we cannot recreate the diet of hunter gatherers, we can eat lots of different foods, including tubers, along with berries and leafy greens and increase fiber to diversify and sustain our microbiota. 15:56 Polyphenols: When researching the impact of plant fiber, it is challenging for researchers to parse out the other benefits of the consumption of plants. In general, Westerners should eat more plants that contain complex dietary fibers, not only to feed their microbiota, but to garner the other benefits. 18:01 Fiber Consumption Comparison: Hunter gatherers consume about 150 – 200 grams per day of dietary fiber. In the U.S., we struggle to eat 15 grams per day. If you starve the microbes in the gut, they begin to consume the mucus lining of your digestive tract. 19:32 Short Chain Fatty Acids Created By Our Microbiota: Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are the major ones. In mice, propionate has been shown to be a regulator of metabolism. Butyrate and propionate have shown in mice to be a regulator of inflammation. They may also play a role in satiety. One day we will have enough information to match our foods to specific microbes in our gut. Increase dietary fiber, to increase short chain fatty acids.
Views: 13552 High Intensity Health
What is the microbiome?
 
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Our human cells are outnumbered by microbial cells - so are we more microbe than human? Subscribe to Nourishable at https://www.youtube.com/c/Nourishable Follow Nourishable on twitter, facebook and instagram to stay up to date on all things nutrition. https://twitter.com/nourishable fb.me/nourishable.tv https://www.instagram.com/nourishable/ Hosting, Research, Writing & Post-Production by Lara Hyde, PhD http://www.nourishable.tv Music & Video Production by Robbie Hyde https://www.youtube.com/user/chedderchowder Motion Graphics by Jay Purugganan https://www.c9studio.com/WP/ Script with in-text citations https://goo.gl/C3qRMW Images: personal collection, shutterstock, pixabay, www.vecteezy.com/ by veernavya, lavarmsg, ayaankabir, seabranddesign, momentbloom The information in this video is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this video is for general information purposes only. References Bianconi et al. 2013. “An Estimation of the Number of Cells in the Human Body.” Annals of Human Biology 40 (6): 463–71. Butel, M-J. 2014. “Probiotics, Gut Microbiota and Health.” Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses 44 (1): 1–8. Chen et al. 2017. “The Microbiota Continuum along the Female Reproductive Tract and Its Relation to Uterine-Related Diseases.” Nature Communications 8 (1): 875. David et al. 2014. “Diet Rapidly and Reproducibly Alters the Human Gut Microbiome.” Nature 505 (7484): 559–63. Dinan et al. 2017. “The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease.” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America 46 (1): 77–89. “Federal Engagement in Antimicrobial Resistance | Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance | CDC.” https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/federal-engagement-in-ar/index.html#tabs-835289-5. Flint et al. 2015. “Links between Diet, Gut Microbiota Composition and Gut Metabolism.” The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 74 (1): 13–22. Hansen et al. 2014. “Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Rodent Models of Human Disease.” World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG 20 (47): 17727–36. “Human Microbiome Project - Public Health Relevance | NIH Common Fund.” n.d. Accessed May 22, 2018. https://commonfund.nih.gov/hmp/public. Jeffery et al. 2013. “Diet-Microbiota Interactions and Their Implications for Healthy Living.” Nutrients 5 (1): 234–52. Jenkins et al. 2016. “Influence of Tryptophan and Serotonin on Mood and Cognition with a Possible Role of the Gut-Brain Axis.” Nutrients 8 (1). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010056. LeBlanc et al. 2013. “Bacteria as Vitamin Suppliers to Their Host: A Gut Microbiota Perspective.” Current Opinion in Biotechnology 24 (2): 160–68. Lloyd-Price et al. 2017. “Strains, Functions and Dynamics in the Expanded Human Microbiome Project.” Nature 550 (7674): 61–66. Montoya-Williams et al. 2018. “The Neonatal Microbiome and Its Partial Role in Mediating the Association between Birth by Cesarean Section and Adverse Pediatric Outcomes.” Neonatology 114 (2): 103–11. O’Mahony et al. 2015. “Serotonin, Tryptophan Metabolism and the Brain-Gut-Microbiome Axis.” Behavioural Brain Research 277 (January): 32–48. Pascale et al. 2018. “Microbiota and Metabolic Diseases.” Endocrine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-018-1605-5. Perez-Muñoz et al. 2017. “A Critical Assessment of the ‘sterile Womb’ and ‘in Utero Colonization’ Hypotheses: Implications for Research on the Pioneer Infant Microbiome.” Microbiome 5 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-017-0268-4. Pimentel et al. 2013. “Gas and the Microbiome.” Current Gastroenterology Reports 15 (12). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11894-013-0356-y. Ridaura et al. 2013. “Gut Microbiota from Twins Discordant for Obesity Modulate Metabolism in Mice.” Science 341 (6150): 1241214. Sender et al. 2016. “Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body.” PLoS Biology 14 (8): e1002533. Tamburini et al. 2016. “The Microbiome in Early Life: Implications for Health Outcomes.” Nature Medicine 22 (7): 713–22. Theriot & Young. 2015. “Interactions Between the Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Clostridium Difficile.” Annual Review of Microbiology 69 (1): 445–61. Turnbaugh et al. 2009. “A Core Gut Microbiome in Obese and Lean Twins.” Nature 457 (7228): 480–84. Turnbaugh et al. 2006. “An Obesity-Associated Gut Microbiome with Increased Capacity for Energy Harvest.” Nature 444 (7122): 1027–31. Versini et al. 2015. “Unraveling the Hygiene Hypothesis of Helminthes and Autoimmunity: Origins, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Applications.” BMC Medicine 13 (April): 81. Vrieze et al. 2012. “Transfer of Intestinal Microbiota from Lean Donors Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome.” Gastroenterology 143 (4): 913–16.e7. Yano et al. 2015. “Indigenous Bacteria from the Gut Microbiota Regulate Host Serotonin Biosynthesis.” Cell 161 (2): 264–76.
Views: 202 Nourishable
Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit 2015 animation
 
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An animation to learn more about our gut microbiota, an organ we need to take care of.
#GMFH2015 Brent Polk and the Evolution of Gut Microbiota throughout Life
 
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Interview with Brent Polk, Chair of the Pediatrics Department at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, about gut microbiota evolution. Learn more at: http://www.gutmicrobiotaforhealth.com/en/an-interview-with-brent-polk-just-a-few-years-ago-we-thought-humans-were-completely-sterile-at-birth/