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Quantum Experiments at Space Scale | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_Experiments_at_Space_Scale 00:02:07 1 Mission 00:03:27 1.1 Launch 00:04:04 1.2 Multi-payload mission 00:05:17 2 Secure key distribution 00:07:20 3 Analysis 00:08:38 4 Similar projects 00:09:44 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8904660910508836 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Quantum Experiments at Space Scale (QUESS; Chinese: 量子科学实验卫星; pinyin: Liàngzǐ kēxué shíyàn wèixīng; literally: "Quantum Science Experiment Satellite"), is an international research project in the field of quantum physics. Tiangong-2 is China’s second Space Laboratory module which was launched on 15 Sep 2016. Tiangong-2 carries a total of 14 mission and experiment packages, including Space-Earth quantum key distribution (Chinese: 量子密钥分发) and laser communications experiment to facilitate space-to-ground quantum communication.A satellite, nicknamed Micius or Mozi (Chinese: 墨子) after the ancient Chinese philosopher and scientist, is operated by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, as well as ground stations in China. The University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences are running the satellite’s European receiving stations.QUESS is a proof-of-concept mission designed to facilitate quantum optics experiments over long distances to allow the development of quantum encryption and quantum teleportation technology. Quantum encryption uses the principle of entanglement to facilitate communication that is totally safe against eavesdropping, let alone decryption, by a third party. By producing pairs of entangled photons, QUESS will allow ground stations separated by many thousands of kilometres to establish secure quantum channels. QUESS itself has limited communication capabilities: it needs line-of-sight, and can only operate when not in sunlight.QUESS has been successful in its objectives. Further Micius satellites will follow, allowing a European–Asian quantum-encrypted network by 2020, and a global network by 2030.The mission cost was around US$100 million in total.
Views: 10 wikipedia tts
What is PHOTONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT? What does PHOTONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT mean?
 
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What is PHOTONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT? What does PHOTONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT mean? PHOTONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT meaning - PHOTONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT definition - PHOTONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) or integrated optical circuit is a device that integrates multiple (at least two) photonic functions and as such is similar to an electronic integrated circuit. The major difference between the two is that a photonic integrated circuit provides functions for information signals imposed on optical wavelengths typically in the visible spectrum or near infrared 850 nm-1650 nm. The most commercially utilized material platform for photonic integrated circuits is indium phosphide (InP), which allows for the integration of various optically active and passive functions on the same chip. Initial examples of photonic integrated circuits were simple 2 section distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers, consisting of two independently controlled device sections - a gain section and a DBR mirror section. Consequently, all modern monolithic tunable lasers, widely tunable lasers, externally modulated lasers and transmitters, integrated receivers, etc. are examples of photonic integrated circuits. Current state-of-the-art devices integrate hundreds of functions onto single chip. Pioneering work in this arena was performed at Bell Laboratories. Most notable academic centers of excellence of photonic integrated circuits in InP are the University of California at Santa Barbara, USA, and the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. A 2005 development showed that silicon can, even though it is an indirect bandgap material, still be used to generate laser light via the Raman nonlinearity. Such lasers are not electrically driven but optically driven and therefore still necessitate a further optical pump laser source. The primary application for photonic integrated circuits is in the area of fiber-optic communication though applications in other fields such as biomedical and photonic computing are also possible. The arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) which are commonly used as optical (de)multiplexers in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) fiber-optic communication systems are an example of a photonic integrated circuit which has replaced previous multiplexing schemes which utilized multiple discrete filter elements. Since separating optical modes is a need for quantum computing, this technology may be helpful to miniaturize quantum computers (see linear optical quantum computing). Another example of a photonic integrated chip in wide use today in fiber-optic communication systems is the externally modulated laser (EML) which combines a distributed feed back laser diode with an electro-absorption modulator on a single InP based chip. Photonic integration is currently an active topic in U.S. Defense contracts. It is included by the Optical Internetworking Forum for inclusion in 100 gigahertz optical networking standards.
Views: 431 The Audiopedia
Quantum Theory - Full Documentary HD
 
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Check: https://youtu.be/Hs_chZSNL9I The World of Quantum - Full Documentary HD http://www.advexon.com For more Scientific DOCUMENTARIES. Subscribe for more Videos... Quantum mechanics (QM -- also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory) is a branch of physics which deals with physical phenomena at nanoscopic scales where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. It departs from classical mechanics primarily at the quantum realm of atomic and subatomic length scales. Quantum mechanics provides a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter. Quantum mechanics provides a substantially useful framework for many features of the modern periodic table of elements including the behavior of atoms during chemical bonding and has played a significant role in the development of many modern technologies. In advanced topics of quantum mechanics, some of these behaviors are macroscopic (see macroscopic quantum phenomena) and emerge at only extreme (i.e., very low or very high) energies or temperatures (such as in the use of superconducting magnets). For example, the angular momentum of an electron bound to an atom or molecule is quantized. In contrast, the angular momentum of an unbound electron is not quantized. In the context of quantum mechanics, the wave--particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provide a unified view of the behavior of photons, electrons, and other atomic-scale objects. The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract. A mathematical function, the wavefunction, provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle. Mathematical manipulations of the wavefunction usually involve bra--ket notation which requires an understanding of complex numbers and linear functionals. The wavefunction formulation treats the particle as a quantum harmonic oscillator, and the mathematics is akin to that describing acoustic resonance. Many of the results of quantum mechanics are not easily visualized in terms of classical mechanics. For instance, in a quantum mechanical model the lowest energy state of a system, the ground state, is non-zero as opposed to a more "traditional" ground state with zero kinetic energy (all particles at rest). Instead of a traditional static, unchanging zero energy state, quantum mechanics allows for far more dynamic, chaotic possibilities, according to John Wheeler. The earliest versions of quantum mechanics were formulated in the first decade of the 20th century. About this time, the atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light (as updated by Einstein)[1] first came to be widely accepted as scientific fact; these latter theories can be viewed as quantum theories of matter and electromagnetic radiation, respectively. Early quantum theory was significantly reformulated in the mid-1920s by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and Pascual Jordan, (matrix mechanics); Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger (wave mechanics); and Wolfgang Pauli and Satyendra Nath Bose (statistics of subatomic particles). Moreover, the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr became widely accepted. By 1930, quantum mechanics had been further unified and formalized by the work of David Hilbert, Paul Dirac and John von Neumann[2] with a greater emphasis placed on measurement in quantum mechanics, the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality, and philosophical speculation about the role of the observer. Quantum mechanics has since permeated throughout many aspects of 20th-century physics and other disciplines including quantum chemistry, quantum electronics, quantum optics, and quantum information science. Much 19th-century physics has been re-evaluated as the "classical limit" of quantum mechanics and its more advanced developments in terms of quantum field theory, string theory, and speculative quantum gravity theories. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZsVGut7G-dU quantum solace, quantum world, #quantum
Views: 7076472 Advexon Science Network
Quantum key distribution | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_key_distribution 00:02:12 1 Quantum key exchange 00:04:10 1.1 BB84 protocol: Charles H. Bennett and Gilles Brassard (1984) 00:09:04 1.2 E91 protocol: Artur Ekert (1991) 00:12:27 2 Information reconciliation and privacy amplification 00:15:54 3 Implementations 00:16:03 3.1 Experimental 00:19:01 3.2 Commercial 00:20:11 3.3 Quantum key distribution networks 00:20:21 3.3.1 DARPA 00:20:44 3.3.2 SECOQC 00:21:22 3.3.3 SwissQuantum 00:22:04 3.3.4 Chinese networks 00:23:20 3.3.5 Tokyo QKD Network 00:24:05 3.3.6 Los Alamos National Laboratory 00:24:59 4 Attacks and security proofs 00:25:09 4.1 Intercept and resend 00:27:48 4.2 Man-in-the-middle attack 00:28:52 4.3 Photon number splitting attack 00:31:55 4.4 Denial of service 00:32:26 4.5 Trojan-horse attacks 00:32:55 4.6 Security proofs 00:34:03 5 Quantum hacking 00:36:33 6 Counterfactual quantum key distribution 00:37:34 7 History 00:38:54 8 Future 00:40:31 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a secure communication method which implements a cryptographic protocol involving components of quantum mechanics. It enables two parties to produce a shared random secret key known only to them, which can then be used to encrypt and decrypt messages. It is often incorrectly called quantum cryptography, as it is the best-known example of a quantum cryptographic task. An important and unique property of quantum key distribution is the ability of the two communicating users to detect the presence of any third party trying to gain knowledge of the key. This results from a fundamental aspect of quantum mechanics: the process of measuring a quantum system in general disturbs the system. A third party trying to eavesdrop on the key must in some way measure it, thus introducing detectable anomalies. By using quantum superpositions or quantum entanglement and transmitting information in quantum states, a communication system can be implemented that detects eavesdropping. If the level of eavesdropping is below a certain threshold, a key can be produced that is guaranteed to be secure (i.e. the eavesdropper has no information about it), otherwise no secure key is possible and communication is aborted. The security of encryption that uses quantum key distribution relies on the foundations of quantum mechanics, in contrast to traditional public key cryptography, which relies on the computational difficulty of certain mathematical functions, and cannot provide any mathematical proof as to the actual complexity of reversing the one-way functions used. QKD has provable security based on information theory, and forward secrecy. Quantum key distribution is only used to produce and distribute a key, not to transmit any message data. This key can then be used with any chosen encryption algorithm to encrypt (and decrypt) a message, which can then be transmitted over a standard communication channel. The algorithm most commonly associated with QKD is the one-time pad, as it is provably secure when used with a secret, random key. In real-world situations, it is often also used with encryption using symmetric key algorithms like the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm.
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
What is DIGITAL ELECTRONIC COMPUTER? What does DIGITAL ELECTRONIC COMPUTER mean?
 
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What is DIGITAL ELECTRONIC COMPUTER? What does DIGITAL ELECTRONIC COMPUTER mean? DIGITAL ELECTRONIC COMPUTER meaning - DIGITAL ELECTRONIC COMPUTER definition - DIGITAL ELECTRONIC COMPUTER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ In computer science, a digital electronic computer is a computer machine which is both an electronic computer and a digital computer. Examples of a digital electronic computers include the IBM PC, the Apple Macintosh as well as modern smartphones. When computers that were both digital and electronic appeared, they displaced almost all other kinds of computers, but computation has historically been performed in various non-digital and non-electronic ways: the Lehmer sieve is an example of a digital non-electronic computer, while analog computers are examples of non-digital computers which can be electronic (with analog electronics), and mechanical computers are examples of non-electronic computers (which may be digital or not). An example of a computer which is both non-digital and non-electronic is the ancient Antikythera mechanism found in Greece. All kinds of computers, whether they are digital or analog, and electronic or non-electronic, can be Turing complete if they have sufficient memory. A digital electronic computer is not necessarily a programmable computer, a stored program computer, or a general purpose computer, since in essence a digital electronic computer can be built for one specific application and be non-reprogrammable. As of 2014, most personal computers and smartphones in people's homes that use multicore central processing units (such as AMD FX, Intel Core i7, or the multicore varieties of ARM-based chips) are also parallel computers using the MIMD (multiple instructions - multiple data) paradigm, a technology previously only used in digital electronic supercomputers. As of 2014, most digital electronic supercomputers are also cluster computers, a technology that can be used at home in the form of small Beowulf clusters. Parallel computation is also possible with non-digital or non-electronic computers. An example of a parallel computation system using the abacus would be a group of human computers using a number of abacus machines for computation and communicating using natural language. A digital computer can perform its operations in the decimal system, in binary, in ternary or in other numeral systems. As of 2014, all digital electronic computers commonly used, whether personal computers or supercomputers, are working in the binary number system and also use binary logic. A few ternary computers using ternary logic were built mainly in the Soviet Union as research projects. A digital electronic computer is not necessarily a transistorized computer: before the advent of the transistor, computers used vacuum tubes. The transistor enabled electronic computers to become much more powerful, and recent and future developments in digital electronics may enable humanity to build even more powerful electronic computers. One such possible development is the memristor. People living in the beginning of the 21st century use digital electronic computers for storing data, such as photos, music, documents, and for performing complex mathematical computations or for communication, commonly over a worldwide computer network called the internet which connects many of the world's computers. All these activities made possible by digital electronic computers could, in essence, be performed with non-digital or non-electronic computers if they were sufficiently powerful, but it was only the combination of electronics technology with digital computation in binary that enabled humanity to reach the computation power necessary for today's computing. Advances in quantum computing, DNA computing, optical computing or other technologies could lead to the development of more powerful computers in the future. Digital computers are inherently best described by discrete mathematics, while analog computers are most commonly associated with continuous mathematics. The philosophy of digital physics views the universe as being digital. Konrad Zuse wrote a book known as Rechnender Raum in which he described the whole universe as one all-encompassing computer.
Views: 95 The Audiopedia
Space-division multiple access | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space-division_multiple_access 00:03:06 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9182390645612089 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Space-division multiple access (SDMA) is a channel access method based on creating parallel spatial pipes next to higher capacity pipes through spatial multiplexing and/or diversity, by which it is able to offer superior performance in radio multiple access communication systems. In traditional mobile cellular network systems, the base station has no information on the position of the mobile units within the cell and radiates the signal in all directions within the cell in order to provide radio coverage. This method results in wasting power on transmissions when there are no mobile units to reach, in addition to causing interference for adjacent cells using the same frequency, so called co-channel cells. Likewise, in reception, the antenna receives signals coming from all directions including noise and interference signals. By using smart antenna technology and differing spatial locations of mobile units within the cell, space-division multiple access techniques offer attractive performance enhancements. The radiation pattern of the base station, both in transmission and reception, is adapted to each user to obtain highest gain in the direction of that user. This is often done using phased array techniques. In GSM cellular networks, the base station is aware of the distance (but not direction) of a mobile phone by use of a technique called "timing advance" (TA). The base transceiver station (BTS) can determine how far the mobile station (MS) is by interpreting the reported TA. This information, along with other parameters, can then be used to power down the BTS or MS, if a power control feature is implemented in the network. The power control in either BTS or MS is implemented in most modern networks, especially on the MS, as this ensures a better battery life for the MS. This is also why having a BTS close to the user results in less exposure to electromagnetic radiation. This is why one may be safer to have a BTS close to them as their MS will be powered down as much as possible. For example, there is more power being transmitted from the MS than what one would receive from the BTS even if they were 6 meters away from a BTS mast. However, this estimation might not consider all the Mobile stations that a particular BTS is supporting with EM radiation at any given time. In the same manner, 5th generation mobile networks will be focused in using the given position of the MS in relation to BTS in order to focus all MS Radio frequency power to the BTS direction and vice versa, thus enabling power savings for the Mobile Operator, reducing MS SAR index, reducing the EM field around base stations since beam forming will concentrate RF power when it will be used rather than spread uniformly around the BTS, reducing health and safety concerns, enhancing spectral efficiency, and decreased MS battery consumption.
Views: 30 wikipedia tts
Building the Bits and Qubits
 
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What is computation? ...and what is quantum computation? CORRECTIONS: 8:01 The Pauli-X gate does NOT flip the direction of the qubit. It rotates it 180 degrees about the x-axis, where the x-axis is pointing out of the screen. 9:41 This graph is wrong. The Shor curve should be below the Classical curve since it takes LESS time. Sources: Quantum Computing for Computer Scientists http://books.google.ca/books/about/Quantum_Computing_for_Computer_Scientist.html?id=eTT0FsHA5DAC Quantum Computers: Fundamentals, Application and Implementation www.tngtech.com/assets/btd/btd6/BenjaminFeldman_BTD6.pptx Quantum Computation Roadmap qist.lanl.gov/qcomp_map.shtml WATERLOO NEWS https://uwaterloo.ca/news/news/experiment-opens-door-multi-party-quantum-communication Engineer Guy http://www.engineerguy.com/ Numberphile http://www.numberphile.com/ Images: Cat: cheezburger.com/6403122944 Dog: www.quickmeme.com/meme/3qmjkj Loop Quantum Gravity: commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Loop_quantum_gravity.jpg Billiard Ball Tube Gate: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Toffoli_BilliardBall.gif Republished under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/deed.en Water Valve Gate: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hydristor2.jpg Republished under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License Boolean Algebra Book: http://books.google.ca/books/about/An_Investigation_of_the_Laws_of_Thought.html?id=SWgLVT0otY8C&redir_esc=y Music downloaded from the YouTube Audio Library: Phase Three The Messenger Good Starts Camaguey First Day Where I am From
Views: 182856 Frame of Essence
Digital electronic computer
 
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In computer science, a digital electronic computer is a computer machine which is both an electronic computer and a digital computer. Examples of a digital electronic computers include the IBM PC, the Apple Macintosh as well as modern smartphones. When computers that were both digital and electronic appeared, they displaced almost all other kinds of computers, but computation has historically been performed in various non-digital and non-electronic ways: the Lehmer sieve is an example of a digital non-electronic computer, while analog computers are examples of non-digital computers which can be electronic, and mechanical computers are examples of non-electronic computers. An example of a computer which is both non-digital and non-electronic is the ancient Antikythera mechanism found in Greece. All kinds of computers, whether they are digital or analog, and electronic or non-electronic, can be Turing complete if they have sufficient memory. A digital electronic computer is not necessarily a programmable computer, a stored program computer, or a general purpose computer, since in essence a digital electronic computer can be built for one specific application and be non-reprogrammable. As of 2014, most personal computers and smartphones in people's homes that use multicore central processing units are also parallel computers using the MIMD paradigm, a technology previously only used in digital electronic supercomputers. As of 2014, most digital electronic supercomputers are also cluster computers, a technology that can be used at home in the form of small Beowulf clusters. Parallel computation is also possible with non-digital or non-electronic computers. An example of a parallel computation system using the abacus would be a group of human computers using a number of abacus machines for computation and communicating using natural language. A digital computer can perform its operations in the decimal system, in binary, in ternary or in other numeral systems. As of 2014, all digital electronic computers commonly used, whether personal computers or supercomputers, are working in the binary number system and also use binary logic. A few ternary computers using ternary logic were built mainly in the Soviet Union as research projects. A digital electronic computer is not necessarily a transistorized computer: before the advent of the transistor, computers used vacuum tubes. The transistor enabled electronic computers to become much more powerful, and recent and future developments in digital electronics may enable humanity to build even more powerful electronic computers. One such possible development is the memristor. People living in the beginning of the 21st century use digital electronic computers for storing data, such as photos, music, documents, and for performing complex mathematical computations or for communication, commonly over a worldwide computer network called the internet which connects many of the world's computers. All these activities made possible by digital electronic computers could, in essence, be performed with non-digital or non-electronic computers if they were sufficiently powerful, but it was only the combination of electronics technology with digital computation in binary that enabled humanity to reach the computation power necessary for today's computing. Advances in quantum computing, DNA computing, optical computing or other technologies could lead to the development of more powerful computers in the future. Digital computers are inherently best described by discrete mathematics, while analog computers are most commonly associated with continuous mathematics. The philosophy of digital physics views the universe as being digital. Konrad Zuse wrote a book known as Rechnender Raum in which he described the whole universe as one all-encompassing computer. Video Empire produces videos read aloud. Use the information in this video at your own risk. We cannot always guarantee accuracy. This video uses material from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_electronic_computer, licensed with CC Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0. This video is licensed with CC Attribution-Share-Alike 3.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/ In order to adapt this content it is required to comply with the license terms. Image licensing information is available via: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_electronic_computer
Views: 72 Video Empress
Multi Core Fiber | FiberCast
 
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In this episode of our FiberCast video series, President and CEO Paul Mulligan sits down to talk about multi-core Plastic Optical Fiber. Visit our website at http://fiberfin.com Follow us on Twitter! http://twitter.com/fiberfin Like us on Facebook! http://facebook.com/fiberfin Subscribe to our Youtube channel! http://youtube.com/fiberfin Questions or comments? Email [email protected] Video (c) 2017 FiberFin, Inc. All rights reserved.
Views: 36 FiberFin
What is SECURE CHANNEL? What does SECURE CHANNEL mean? SECURE CHANNEL meaning & explanation
 
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What is SECURE CHANNEL? What does SECURE CHANNEL mean? SECURE CHANNEL meaning - SECURE CHANNEL definition - SECURE CHANNEL explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ In cryptography, a secure channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing and tampering. A confidential channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing (i.e., reading the content), but not necessarily resistant to tampering. An authentic channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to tampering but not necessarily resistant to overhearing. There are no perfectly secure channels in the real world. There are, at best, only ways to make insecure channels (e.g., couriers, homing pigeons, diplomatic bags, etc.) less insecure: padlocks (between courier wrists and a briefcase), loyalty tests, security investigations, and guns for courier personnel, diplomatic immunity for diplomatic bags, and so forth. In 1976, two researchers proposed a key exchange technique (now named after them)—Diffie–Hellman key exchange (D-H). This protocol allows two parties to generate a key only known to them, under the assumption that a certain mathematical problem (e.g., the Diffie–Hellman problem in their proposal) is computationally infeasible (i.e., very very hard) to solve, and that the two parties have access to an authentic channel. In short, that an eavesdropper—conventionally termed 'Eve', who can listen to all messages exchanged by the two parties, but who can not modify the messages—will not learn the exchanged key. Such a key exchange was impossible with any previously known cryptographic schemes based on symmetric ciphers, because with these schemes it is necessary that the two parties exchange a secret key at some prior time, hence they require a confidential channel at that time which is just what we are attempting to build. It is important to note that most cryptographic techniques are trivially breakable if keys are not exchanged securely or, if they actually were so exchanged, if those keys become known in some other way— burglary or extortion, for instance. An actually secure channel will not be required if an insecure channel can be used to securely exchange keys, and if burglary, bribery, or threat aren't used. The eternal problem has been and of course remains—even with modern key exchange protocols—how to know when an insecure channel worked securely (or alternatively, and perhaps more importantly, when it did not), and whether anyone has actually been bribed or threatened or simply lost a notebook (or a notebook computer) with key information in it. These are hard problems in the real world and no solutions are known—only expedients, jury rigs, and workarounds. Researchers have proposed and demonstrated quantum cryptography in order to create a secure channel. If the current understanding of this subject of quantum physics is adequate, quantum cryptography facilitates the exchange of theoretically uneavesdroppable, non-interceptable, non-tamperable data. The mechanism is related to the uncertainty relation. It is not clear whether the special conditions under which it can be made to work are practical in the real world of noise, dirt, and imperfection in which most everything is required to function. Thus far, actual implementation of the technique is exquisitely finicky and expensive, limiting it to very special purpose applications. It may also be vulnerable to attacks specific to particular implementations and imperfections in the optical components of which the quantum cryptographic equipment is built. While implementations of classical cryptographic algorithms have received worldwide scrutiny over the years, only a limited amount of public research has been done to assess security of the present-day implementations of quantum cryptosystems, mostly because they are not in widespread use as of 2014. Security definitions for a secure channel try to model its properties independently from its concrete instantiation. A good understanding of these properties is needed before designing a secure channel, and before being able to assess its appropriateness of employment in a cryptographic protocol. This is a topic of provable security. A definition of a secure channel that remains secure, even when used in arbitrary cryptographic protocols is an important building block for universally composable cryptography....
Views: 128 The Audiopedia
Quantum cryptography | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_cryptography 00:00:44 1 History 00:02:49 2 Quantum key distribution 00:04:47 3 Quantum coin flipping 00:05:47 4 Quantum commitment 00:08:08 5 Bounded- and noisy-quantum-storage model 00:11:07 6 Position-based quantum cryptography 00:13:14 7 Device-independent quantum cryptography 00:14:39 8 Post-quantum cryptography 00:16:30 9 Quantum cryptography beyond key distribution Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks. The best known example of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution which offers an information-theoretically secure solution to the key exchange problem. The advantage of quantum cryptography lies in the fact that it allows the completion of various cryptographic tasks that are proven or conjectured to be impossible using only classical (i.e. non-quantum) communication. For example, it is impossible to copy data encoded in a quantum state. If one attempts to read the encoded data, the quantum state will be changed (No-Cloning Theorem). This could be used to detect eavesdropping in quantum key distribution.
Views: 2 wikipedia tts
Digital electronic computer | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_electronic_computer 00:05:02 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.809087485887211 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-F "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In computer science, a digital electronic computer is a computer machine which is both an electronic computer and a digital computer. Examples of a digital electronic computers include the IBM PC, the Apple Macintosh as well as modern smartphones. When computers that were both digital and electronic appeared, they displaced almost all other kinds of computers, but computation has historically been performed in various non-digital and non-electronic ways: the Lehmer sieve is an example of a digital non-electronic computer, while analog computers are examples of non-digital computers which can be electronic (with analog electronics), and mechanical computers are examples of non-electronic computers (which may be digital or not). An example of a computer which is both non-digital and non-electronic is the ancient Antikythera mechanism found in Greece. All kinds of computers, whether they are digital or analog, and electronic or non-electronic, can be Turing complete if they have sufficient memory. A digital electronic computer is not necessarily a programmable computer, a stored program computer, or a general purpose computer, since in essence a digital electronic computer can be built for one specific application and be non-reprogrammable. As of 2014, most personal computers and smartphones in people's homes that use multicore central processing units (such as AMD FX, Intel Core i7, or the multicore varieties of ARM-based chips) are also parallel computers using the MIMD (multiple instructions - multiple data) paradigm, a technology previously only used in digital electronic supercomputers. As of 2014, most digital electronic supercomputers are also cluster computers, a technology that can be used at home in the form of small Beowulf clusters. Parallel computation is also possible with non-digital or non-electronic computers. An example of a parallel computation system using the abacus would be a group of human computers using a number of abacus machines for computation and communicating using natural language. A digital computer can perform its operations in the decimal system, in binary, in ternary or in other numeral systems. As of 2014, all digital electronic computers commonly used, whether personal computers or supercomputers, are working in the binary number system and also use binary logic. A few ternary computers using ternary logic were built mainly in the Soviet Union as research projects. A digital electronic computer is not necessarily a transistorized computer: before the advent of the transistor, computers used vacuum tubes. The transistor enabled electronic computers to become much more powerful, and recent and future developments in digital electronics may enable humanity to build even more powerful electronic computers. One such possible development is the memristor. People living in the beginning of the 21st century use digital electronic computers for storing data, such as photos, music, documents, and for performing complex mathematical computations or for communication, commonly over a worldwide computer network called the internet which connects many of the world's computers. All these activities made possible by digital electronic computers could, in essence, be performed with non-digital or non-electronic computers if they were sufficiently powerful, but it was only the combination of electronics technology with digital computation in binary that enabled humanity to reach the computation power necessary for today's computing. Advances in quantum computing, DNA computing, optical computing or other technologies could lead to the development of more powerful computers in the future. Digital computers are inherently best d ...
Views: 1 wikipedia tts
Linear optical quantum computing | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_optical_quantum_computing 00:00:36 1 Overview 00:05:10 1.1 KLM protocol 00:07:42 1.2 Boson sampling 00:08:12 2 Elements of LOQC 00:10:00 2.1 Qubits and modes 00:14:19 2.2 State preparation 00:15:47 2.3 Implementations of elementary quantum gates 00:23:53 3 Integrated photonic circuits for LOQC 00:25:32 4 Implementations comparison 00:25:42 4.1 Comparison of the KLM protocol and the boson sampling model 00:27:50 4.2 Earlier models Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8546225441043878 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Linear Optical Quantum Computing or Linear Optics Quantum Computation (LOQC) is a paradigm of quantum computation, allowing (under certain conditions, described below) universal quantum computation. LOQC uses photons as information carriers, mainly uses linear optical elements (including beam splitters, phase shifters, and mirrors) to process quantum information, and uses photon detectors and quantum memories to detect and store quantum information.
Views: 5 Subhajit Sahu
INTERNET - WikiVidi Documentary
 
14:01
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web , electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing. The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s. The funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well... http://www.wikividi.com ____________________________________ Shortcuts to chapters: 00:03:34 Terminology 00:05:13 History ____________________________________ Copyright WikiVidi. Licensed under Creative Commons. Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet
Optical computing | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_computing 00:01:33 1 Optical components for binary digital computer 00:03:13 1.1 Controversy 00:04:17 2 Misconceptions, challenges, and prospects 00:06:11 3 Photonic logic 00:07:10 4 Unconventional approaches 00:07:20 4.1 Time delays optical computing 00:10:59 4.2 Wavelength-based computing 00:11:39 4.3 Computing by xeroxing on transparencies 00:12:38 4.4 Masking optical beams 00:13:14 4.5 Optical Fourier co-processors 00:14:30 4.6 Ising machines 00:15:23 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8037590809646697 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Optical or photonic computing uses photons produced by lasers or diodes for computation. For decades, photons have promised to allow a higher bandwidth than the electrons used in conventional computers. Most research projects focus on replacing current computer components with optical equivalents, resulting in an optical digital computer system processing binary data. This approach appears to offer the best short-term prospects for commercial optical computing, since optical components could be integrated into traditional computers to produce an optical-electronic hybrid. However, optoelectronic devices lose 30% of their energy converting electronic energy into photons and back; this conversion also slows the transmission of messages. All-optical computers eliminate the need for optical-electrical-optical (OEO) conversions, thus lessening the need for electrical power.Application-specific devices, such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical correlators, have been designed to use the principles of optical computing. Correlators can be used, for example, to detect and track objects, and to classify serial time-domain optical data.
Views: 4 wikipedia tts
Optical fiber | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_fiber 00:02:12 1 History 00:07:54 1.1 Record speeds 00:09:00 2 Uses 00:09:08 2.1 Communication 00:11:49 2.1.1 Advantages over copper wiring 00:13:13 2.2 Sensors 00:16:01 2.3 Power transmission 00:16:36 2.4 Other uses 00:19:22 3 Principle of operation 00:19:58 3.1 Index of refraction 00:21:41 3.2 Total internal reflection 00:22:49 3.3 Multi-mode fiber 00:24:36 3.4 Single-mode fiber 00:26:22 3.5 Special-purpose fiber 00:27:14 4 Mechanisms of attenuation 00:28:39 4.1 Light scattering 00:30:43 4.2 UV-Vis-IR absorption 00:33:15 4.3 Loss budget 00:34:26 5 Manufacturing 00:34:35 5.1 Materials 00:35:28 5.1.1 Silica 00:38:12 5.1.2 Fluoride glass 00:40:08 5.1.3 Phosphate glass 00:40:49 5.1.4 Chalcogenide glass 00:41:24 5.2 Process 00:41:32 5.2.1 Preform 00:44:43 5.2.2 Drawing 00:45:06 5.3 Coatings 00:47:52 6 Practical issues 00:48:01 6.1 Cable construction 00:50:15 6.2 Termination and splicing 00:54:27 6.3 Free-space coupling 00:56:10 6.4 Fiber fuse 00:57:02 6.5 Chromatic dispersion Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9602740845272555 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair. Optical fibers are used most often as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than electrical cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss; in addition, fibers are immune to electromagnetic interference, a problem from which metal wires suffer excessively. Fibers are also used for illumination and imaging, and are often wrapped in bundles so they may be used to carry light into, or images out of confined spaces, as in the case of a fiberscope. Specially designed fibers are also used for a variety of other applications, some of them being fiber optic sensors and fiber lasers.Optical fibers typically include a core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by the phenomenon of total internal reflection which causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers that support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers, while those that support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF). Multi-mode fibers generally have a wider core diameter and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 1,000 meters (3,300 ft).Being able to join optical fibers with low loss is important in fiber optic communication. This is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable and involves careful cleaving of the fibers, precise alignment of the fiber cores, and the coupling of these aligned cores. For applications that demand a permanent connection a fusion splice is common. In this technique, an electric arc is used to melt the ends of the fibers together. Another common technique is a mechanical splice, where the ends of the fibers are held in contact by mechanical force. Temporary or semi-permanent connections are made by means of specialized optical fiber connectors.The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics. The term was coined by Indian physicist Narinder Singh Kapany, who is widely acknowledged as the father of fiber optics.
Views: 9 wikipedia tts
How Does a Quantum Computer Work?
 
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For more on spin, check out: http://youtu.be/v1_-LsQLwkA This video was supported by TechNYou: http://bit.ly/19bBX5G A quantum computer works in a totally different way from a classical computer. Quantum bits or 'qubits' can exist in a superposition state of both zero and one simultaneously. This means that a set of two qubits can be in a superposition of four states, which therefore require four numbers to uniquely identify the state. So the amount of information stored in N qubits is two to the power of N classical bits. Thank you to Andrea Morello and UNSW. For more info, check out: http://bit.ly/17wZ7lt
Views: 2983884 Veritasium
Quantum computing | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Quantum computing 00:02:24 1 Basics 00:05:05 2 Principles of operation 00:14:37 3 Operation 00:17:17 4 Potential 00:17:26 4.1 Cryptography 00:19:50 4.2 Quantum search 00:22:11 4.3 Quantum simulation 00:22:43 4.4 Quantum annealing and adiabatic optimisation 00:23:19 4.5 Solving linear equations 00:23:42 4.6 Quantum supremacy 00:25:15 5 Obstacles 00:25:57 5.1 Quantum decoherence 00:28:51 6 Developments 00:29:00 6.1 Quantum computing models 00:30:08 6.2 Physical realizations 00:32:48 6.3 Timeline 00:47:01 7 Relation to computational complexity theory Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement. A quantum computer is a device that performs quantum computing. Such a computer is different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors. Whereas common digital computing requires that the data be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits or qubits, which can be in superpositions of states. A quantum Turing machine is a theoretical model of such a computer and is also known as the universal quantum computer. The field of quantum computing was initiated by the work of Paul Benioff and Yuri Manin in 1980, Richard Feynman in 1982, and David Deutsch in 1985.As of 2018, the development of actual quantum computers is still in its infancy, but experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of quantum bits. Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national governments and military agencies are funding quantum computing research in additional effort to develop quantum computers for civilian, business, trade, environmental and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis. Noisy devices with a small number of qubits have been developed by a number of companies, including IBM, Intel, and Google. IBM has made 5-qubit and 16-qubit quantum computing devices available to the public for experiments via the cloud on the IBM Q Experience. D-Wave Systems has been developing their own version of a quantum computer that uses annealing.Large-scale quantum computers would theoretically be able to solve certain problems much more quickly than any classical computers that use even the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm (which is a quantum algorithm) and the simulation of quantum many-body systems. There exist quantum algorithms, such as Simon's algorithm, that run faster than any possible probabilistic classical algorithm. A classical computer could in principle (with exponential resources) simulate a quantum algorithm, as quantum computation does not violate the Church–Turing thesis. On the other hand, quantum computers may be able to efficiently solve problems which are not practically feasible on classical computers.
Views: 15 wikipedia tts
Quantum physics | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:06:47
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_mechanics 00:02:03 1 History 00:10:41 2 Mathematical formulations 00:20:43 3 Mathematically equivalent formulations of quantum mechanics 00:22:31 4 Interactions with other scientific theories 00:27:08 4.1 Quantum mechanics and classical physics 00:29:45 4.2 Copenhagen interpretation of quantum versus classical kinematics 00:33:26 4.3 General relativity and quantum mechanics 00:35:01 4.4 Attempts at a unified field theory 00:38:02 5 Philosophical implications 00:44:12 6 Applications 00:45:26 6.1 Electronics 00:46:55 6.2 Cryptography 00:47:47 6.3 Quantum computing 00:48:42 6.4 Macroscale quantum effects 00:49:35 6.5 Quantum theory 00:50:37 7 Examples 00:50:46 7.1 Free particle 00:52:35 7.2 Particle in a box 00:56:01 7.3 Finite potential well 00:56:18 7.4 Rectangular potential barrier 00:56:44 7.5 Harmonic oscillator 00:56:50 7.6 Step potential 00:59:28 8 See also 00:59:48 9 Notes 01:00:24 10 References 01:00:49 11 Further reading 01:04:00 12 External links 01:06:34 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.Classical physics, the physics existing before quantum mechanics, describes nature at ordinary (macroscopic) scale. Most theories in classical physics can be derived from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid at large (macroscopic) scale. Quantum mechanics differs from classical physics in that energy, momentum, angular momentum and other quantities of a bound system are restricted to discrete values (quantization); objects have characteristics of both particles and waves (wave-particle duality); and there are limits to the precision with which quantities can be measured (uncertainty principle).Quantum mechanics gradually arose from theories to explain observations which could not be reconciled with classical physics, such as Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem, and from the correspondence between energy and frequency in Albert Einstein's 1905 paper which explained the photoelectric effect. Early quantum theory was profoundly re-conceived in the mid-1920s by Erwin Schrödinger, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and others. The modern theory is formulated in various specially developed mathematical formalisms. In one of them, a mathematical function, the wave function, provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle. Important applications of quantum theory include quantum chemistry, quantum optics, quantum computing, superconducting magnets, light-emitting diodes, and the laser, the transistor and semiconductors such as the microprocessor, medical and research imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopy. Explanations for many biological and physical phenomena are rooted in the nature of the chemical bond, most notably the macro-molecule DNA.
Views: 6 wikipedia tts
Quantum computer | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_computing 00:02:59 1 Basics 00:05:47 2 Principles of operation 00:15:25 3 Operation 00:18:09 4 Potential 00:18:18 4.1 Cryptography 00:20:44 4.2 Quantum search 00:23:05 4.3 Quantum simulation 00:23:39 4.4 Quantum annealing and adiabatic optimisation 00:24:15 4.5 Solving linear equations 00:24:39 4.6 Quantum supremacy 00:26:16 5 Obstacles 00:26:57 5.1 Quantum decoherence 00:29:56 6 Developments 00:30:05 6.1 Quantum computing models 00:31:14 6.2 Physical realizations 00:33:53 6.3 Timeline 00:48:27 7 Relation to computational complexity theory Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9884976941951719 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement. A quantum computer is a device that performs quantum computing. Such a computer is completely different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors and capacitors. Whereas common digital computing requires that the data be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits or qubits, which can be in superpositions of states. A quantum Turing machine is a theoretical model of such a computer and is also known as the universal quantum computer. The field of quantum computing was initiated by the work of Paul Benioff and Yuri Manin in 1980, Richard Feynman in 1982, and David Deutsch in 1985.As of 2018, the development of actual quantum computers is still in its infancy, but experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of quantum bits. Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national governments and military agencies are funding quantum computing research in additional effort to develop quantum computers for civilian, business, trade, environmental and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis. Noisy devices with a small number of qubits, also dubbed noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices by John Preskill, have been developed by a number of companies, including IBM, Intel, and Google. IBM has made 5-qubit and 16-qubit quantum computing devices available to the public for experiments via the cloud on the IBM Q Experience. D-Wave Systems has been developing their own version of a quantum computer that uses annealing.Large-scale quantum computers would theoretically be able to solve certain problems much more quickly than any classical computers that use even the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm (which is a quantum algorithm) and the simulation of quantum many-body systems. There exist quantum algorithms, such as Simon's algorithm, that run faster than any possible probabilistic classical algorithm. A classical computer could in principle (with exponential resources) simulate a quantum algorithm, as quantum computation does not violate the Church–Turing thesis. On the other hand, quantum computers may be able to efficiently solve problems which are not practically feasible on classical computers. A recent review by Mikhail Dyakonov in IEEE Spectrum argues that practical quantum computers are not likely to be implemented. He says: "There is a tremendous gap between the rudimentary but very hard experiments that have been carried out with a few qubits and the extremely developed quantum-computing theory, which relies on manipulating thousands to millions of qubits to calculate anything useful. That gap is not likely to be closed anytime soon."
Views: 8 wikipedia tts
Jeremy O'Brien: "Quantum Technologies"
 
01:04:18
Jeremy O'Brien visited Google LA to deliver a talk: "Quantum Technologies." This talk took place on April 1, 2014. Abstract: The impact of quantum technology will be profound and far-reaching: secure communication networks for consumers, corporations and government; precision sensors for biomedical technology and environmental monitoring; quantum simulators for the design of new materials, pharmaceuticals and clean energy devices; and ultra-powerful quantum computers for addressing otherwise impossibly large datasets for machine learning-artificial intelligence applications. However, engineering quantum systems and controlling them is an immense technological challenge: they are inherently fragile; and information extracted from a quantum system necessarily disturbs the system itself. Despite these challenges a small number of quantum technologies are now commercially available. Delivering the full promise of these technologies will require a concerted quantum engineering effort jointly between academia and industry. We will describe our progress in the Centre for Quantum Photonics to delivering this promise using an integrated quantum photonics platform---generating, manipulating and interacting single particles of light (photons) in waveguide circuits on silicon chips. Bio: Jeremy O'Brien is professor of physics and electrical engineering and director of the Centre for Quantum Photonics (CQP). He received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of New South Wales in 2002 for experimental work on correlated and confined electrons in organic conductors, superconductors and semiconductor nanostructures, as well as progress towards the fabrication of a phosphorus in silicon quantum computer. As a research fellow at the University of Queensland (2001-2006) he worked on quantum optics and quantum information science with single photons. CQP's efforts are focused on the fundamental and applied quantum mechanics at the heart of quantum information science and technology, ranging from prototypes for scalable quantum computing to generalised quantum measurements, quantum control, and quantum metrology.
Views: 15847 GoogleTechTalks
Behind the Scenes at Puget Systems (Custom Computer Builders) - Smarter Every Day 2
 
02:14:11
Original video here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jweQNDCe218 Link 1: NVLink on NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 & 2080 Ti in Windows 10 http://puget.systems/go/s_nvlink_win10 Link 2: NVLINK on RTX 2080 TensorFlow and Peer-to-Peer Performance with Linux http://puget.systems/go/s_nvlink_linux Link 3: "Optimizing Storage for Premiere Pro" video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r7zI7MYSY_0 Link 4: All Puget Systems publications http://puget.systems/go/s_publications Link 5: Puget Systems Oil Immersion Cooling http://puget.systems/go/s_immersion Link 6: Thermal Paste Application Techniques http://puget.systems/go/s_thermal_paste Link 7: Estimating CPU Performance using Amdahls Law http://puget.systems/go/s_amdhal Click here if you're interested in subscribing: http://bit.ly/Subscribe2SED ⇊ Click below for more links! ⇊ HOW TO BUILD A COMPUTER 1. DON'T BUY THE MOST EXPENSIVE MACHINE. 2. RESEARCH ACTUAL BENCHMARK DATA 3. BUY HARDWARE BASED ON YOUR SOFTWARE APPLICATION 4. More cores doesn't mean it's better for you! Side note: The fast rendering capability of this new machine actually let me eat dinner with my family on the first night I used it. This is incredibly important to me. A special thank you to Puget Systems for allowing me to visit and for helping me ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ GET SMARTER SECTION I asked Jon to put together the specs on the computer I spec'd out https://www.pugetsystems.com/go/smarter Amdahl's Law https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amdahl%... Moore's Law https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore%2... ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Tweet Ideas to me at: http://twitter.com/smartereveryday I'm "ilikerockets" on Snapchat. Snap Code: http://i.imgur.com/7DGfEpR.png Smarter Every Day on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/SmarterEveryDay Smarter Every Day on Patreon http://www.patreon.com/smartereveryday Smarter Every Day On Instagram http://www.instagram.com/smartereveryday Smarter Every Day SubReddit http://www.reddit.com/r/smartereveryday Ambiance and musicy things by: Gordon McGladdery did the outro music the video. http://ashellinthepit.bandcamp.com/ The thought is it my efforts making videos will help educate the world as a whole, and one day generate enough revenue to pay for my kids college education. Until then if you appreciate what you've learned in this video and the effort that went in to it, please SHARE THE VIDEO! If you REALLY liked it, feel free to pitch a few dollars Smarter Every Day by becoming a Patron. http://www.patreon.com/smartereveryday Warm Regards, Destin
Views: 104990 Smarter Every Day 2
Quantum machine learning | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_machine_learning 00:01:34 1 Machine learning with quantum computers 00:02:33 1.1 Linear algebra simulation with quantum amplitudes 00:04:54 1.2 Quantum machine learning algorithms based on Grover search 00:05:52 1.3 HHL Algorithm 00:06:20 1.4 Quantum-enhanced reinforcement learning 00:06:50 1.5 Quantum annealing 00:07:01 1.6 Quantum sampling techniques 00:07:45 1.7 Quantum neural networks 00:07:54 1.8 Hidden Quantum Markov Models 00:08:42 1.9 Fully quantum machine learning 00:12:53 2 Classical learning applied to quantum systems 00:14:46 2.1 Variational Circuits 00:16:07 3 Quantum learning theory 00:17:47 4 Implementations and experiments 00:19:55 5 See also 00:20:45 6 References 00:25:05 Implementations and experiments 00:28:57 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Quantum machine learning is an emerging interdisciplinary research area at the intersection of quantum physics and machine learning. The most common use of the term refers to machine learning algorithms for the analysis of classical data executed on a quantum computer. While machine learning algorithms are used to compute immense quantities of data, quantum machine learning increases such capabilities intelligently, by creating opportunities to conduct analysis on quantum states and systems.This includes hybrid methods that involve both classical and quantum processing, where computationally difficult subroutines are outsourced to a quantum device. These routines can be more complex in nature and executed faster with the assistance of quantum devices. Furthermore, quantum algorithms can be used to analyze quantum states instead of classical data. Beyond quantum computing, the term "quantum machine learning" is often associated with machine learning methods applied to data generated from quantum experiments, such as learning quantum phase transitions or creating new quantum experiments. Quantum machine learning also extends to a branch of research that explores methodological and structural similarities between certain physical systems and learning systems, in particular neural networks. For example, some mathematical and numerical techniques from quantum physics are applicable to classical deep learning and vice versa. Finally, researchers investigate more abstract notions of learning theory with respect to quantum information, sometimes referred to as "quantum learning theory".
Views: 6 wikipedia tts
Quantum computation | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_computing 00:03:09 1 Basics 00:06:07 2 Principles of operation 00:16:16 3 Operation 00:19:07 4 Potential 00:19:15 4.1 Cryptography 00:21:48 4.2 Quantum search 00:24:18 4.3 Quantum simulation 00:24:53 4.4 Quantum annealing and adiabatic optimisation 00:25:31 4.5 Solving linear equations 00:25:55 4.6 Quantum supremacy 00:27:36 5 Obstacles 00:28:20 5.1 Quantum decoherence 00:31:25 6 Developments 00:31:35 6.1 Quantum computing models 00:32:47 6.2 Physical realizations 00:35:35 6.3 Timeline 00:50:51 7 Relation to computational complexity theory Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9914562960717304 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement. A quantum computer is a device that performs quantum computing. Such a computer is completely different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors and capacitors. Whereas common digital computing requires that the data be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits or qubits, which can be in superpositions of states. A quantum Turing machine is a theoretical model of such a computer and is also known as the universal quantum computer. The field of quantum computing was initiated by the work of Paul Benioff and Yuri Manin in 1980, Richard Feynman in 1982, and David Deutsch in 1985.As of 2018, the development of actual quantum computers is still in its infancy, but experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of quantum bits. Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national governments and military agencies are funding quantum computing research in additional effort to develop quantum computers for civilian, business, trade, environmental and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis. Noisy devices with a small number of qubits, also dubbed noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices by John Preskill, have been developed by a number of companies, including IBM, Intel, and Google. IBM has made 5-qubit and 16-qubit quantum computing devices available to the public for experiments via the cloud on the IBM Q Experience. D-Wave Systems has been developing their own version of a quantum computer that uses annealing.Large-scale quantum computers would theoretically be able to solve certain problems much more quickly than any classical computers that use even the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm (which is a quantum algorithm) and the simulation of quantum many-body systems. There exist quantum algorithms, such as Simon's algorithm, that run faster than any possible probabilistic classical algorithm. A classical computer could in principle (with exponential resources) simulate a quantum algorithm, as quantum computation does not violate the Church–Turing thesis. On the other hand, quantum computers may be able to efficiently solve problems which are not practically feasible on classical computers. A recent review by Mikhail Dyakonov in IEEE Spectrum argues that practical quantum computers are not likely to be implemented. He says: "There is a tremendous gap between the rudimentary but very hard experiments that have been carried out with a few qubits and the extremely developed quantum-computing theory, which relies on manipulating thousands to millions of qubits to calculate anything useful. That gap is not likely to be closed anytime soon."
Views: 8 wikipedia tts
Computer Science's Wonder Woman: Ada Lovelace - Computerphile
 
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Ada Lovelace became known as the world's first computer programmer - Professor Brailsford on how being poet Byron's daughter inadvertently sent her down a scientific path. The Professor's notes: http://www.eprg.org/computerphile/new-adatalk.pdf Ada's actual paper: http://bit.ly/Computerphile_Ada_Paper Sega Game Coding: https://youtu.be/GH94fKtGr0M Complete 'Babbage & Lovelace' Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLzH6n4zXuckqKMcpQANsyPJId7jkxq7g8 Sixty Symbols - Ada's Tomb: https://youtu.be/OSQRTTuHLP8 Undecidability Tangent: https://youtu.be/nsZsd5qtbo4 More of Sydney Padua's work: http://bit.ly/1de83fM Analytical Engine project: http://bit.ly/Computerphile_Plan28 Lovelace Symposium : http://bit.ly/Computerphile_LovelaceSymp Stephen Wolfram's Blog on Ada Lovelace: http://bit.ly/Computerphile_Wolfram_Ada http://www.facebook.com/computerphile https://twitter.com/computer_phile This video was filmed and edited by Sean Riley. Computer Science at the University of Nottingham: http://bit.ly/nottscomputer Computerphile is a sister project to Brady Haran's Numberphile. More at http://www.bradyharan.com
Views: 49412 Computerphile
DEF CON 23 -  Jean Philippe Aumasson - Quantum Computers vs Computers Security
 
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We've heard about hypothetical quantum computers breaking most of the public-key crypto in use—RSA, elliptic curves, etc.—and we've heard about "post-quantum" systems that resist quantum computers. We also heard about quantum computers' potential to solve other problems considerably faster than classical computers, such as discrete optimization, machine learning, or code verification problems. And we heard about a commercial quantum computer, and we heard vendors of quantum key distribution or quantum random number generators promise us security as solid as the laws of physics. Still, most of us are clueless regarding: How quantum computers work and why they could solve certain problems faster than classical computers? What are the actual facts and what is FUD, hype, or journalistic exaggeration? Could quantum computers help in defending classical computers and networks against intrusions? Is it worth spending money in post-quantum systems, quantum key distribution, or in purchasing or developing of a quantum computer? Will usable quantum computers be built in the foreseeable future? This talk gives honest answers to those questions, based on the latest research, on analyses of the researchers' and vendors' claims, and on a cost-benefit-risk analyses. We'll expose the fundamental principles of quantum computing in a way comprehensible by anyone, and we'll skip the technical details that require math and physics knowledge. Yet after this talk you'll best be able to assess the risk of quantum computers, to debunk misleading claims, and to ask the right questions. Speaker Bio: Jean-Philippe (JP) Aumasson is Principal Cryptographer at Kudelski Security, in Switzerland. He is known for designing the cryptographic functions BLAKE, BLAKE2, SipHash, and NORX. He has spoken at conferences such as Black Hat, RSA, and CCC, and initiated the Crypto Coding Standard and the Password Hashing Competition projects. He co-wrote the 2015 book "The Hash Function BLAKE". He is member of the technical advisory board of the Open Crypto Audit Project and of the Underhanded Crypto Contest. JP tweets as @veorq. Twitter: @veorq
Views: 4187 DEFCONConference
Photonic computing | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_computing 00:01:41 1 Optical components for binary digital computer 00:03:31 1.1 Controversy 00:04:41 2 Misconceptions, challenges, and prospects 00:06:46 3 Photonic logic 00:07:50 4 Unconventional approaches 00:08:00 4.1 Time delays optical computing 00:12:01 4.2 Wavelength-based computing 00:12:44 4.3 Computing by xeroxing on transparencies 00:13:49 4.4 Masking optical beams 00:14:28 4.5 Optical Fourier co-processors 00:15:51 4.6 Ising machines 00:16:48 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7070218941372133 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Optical or photonic computing uses photons produced by lasers or diodes for computation. For decades, photons have promised to allow a higher bandwidth than the electrons used in conventional computers. Most research projects focus on replacing current computer components with optical equivalents, resulting in an optical digital computer system processing binary data. This approach appears to offer the best short-term prospects for commercial optical computing, since optical components could be integrated into traditional computers to produce an optical-electronic hybrid. However, optoelectronic devices lose 30% of their energy converting electronic energy into photons and back; this conversion also slows the transmission of messages. All-optical computers eliminate the need for optical-electrical-optical (OEO) conversions, thus lessening the need for electrical power.Application-specific devices, such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical correlators, have been designed to use the principles of optical computing. Correlators can be used, for example, to detect and track objects, and to classify serial time-domain optical data.
Views: 1 wikipedia tts
Quantum mechanics | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Quantum mechanics Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.Classical physics, the physics existing before quantum mechanics, describes nature at ordinary (macroscopic) scale. Most theories in classical physics can be derived from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid at large (macroscopic) scale. Quantum mechanics differs from classical physics in that energy, momentum, angular momentum and other quantities of a bound system are restricted to discrete values (quantization); objects have characteristics of both particles and waves (wave-particle duality); and there are limits to the precision with which quantities can be measured (uncertainty principle).Quantum mechanics gradually arose from theories to explain observations which could not be reconciled with classical physics, such as Max Planck's solution in 1900 to the black-body radiation problem, and from the correspondence between energy and frequency in Albert Einstein's 1905 paper which explained the photoelectric effect. Early quantum theory was profoundly re-conceived in the mid-1920s by Erwin Schrödinger, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and others. The modern theory is formulated in various specially developed mathematical formalisms. In one of them, a mathematical function, the wave function, provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle. Important applications of quantum theory include quantum chemistry, quantum optics, quantum computing, superconducting magnets, light-emitting diodes, and the laser, the transistor and semiconductors such as the microprocessor, medical and research imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopy. Explanations for many biological and physical phenomena are rooted in the nature of the chemical bond, most notably the macro-molecule DNA.
Views: 14 wikipedia tts
Computer Classic: "Electronic Computers Improve Management Control" (1957) UCLA
 
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This video shows different machines and there uses. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_electronic_computer The Lehmer sieve is an example of a digital non-electronic computer, specialized for finding primes and solving simple Diophantine equations. When digital electronic computers appeared, they displaced all other kinds of computers, including analog computers and mechanical computers In computer science, a digital electronic computer is a computer machine which is both an electronic computer and a digital computer. Examples of a digital electronic computers include the IBM PC, the Apple Macintosh as well as modern smartphones. When computers that were both digital and electronic appeared, they displaced almost all other kinds of computers, but computation has historically been performed in various non-digital and non-electronic ways: the Lehmer sieve is an example of a digital non-electronic computer, while analog computers are examples of non-digital computers which can be electronic (with analog electronics), and mechanical computers are examples of non-electronic computers (which may be digital or not). An example of a computer which is both non-digital and non-electronic is the ancient Antikythera mechanism found in Greece. All kinds of computers, whether they are digital or analog, and electronic or non-electronic, can be Turing complete if they have sufficient memory. A digital electronic computer is not necessarily a programmable computer, a stored program computer, or a general purpose computer, since in essence a digital electronic computer can be built for one specific application and be non-reprogrammable. As of 2014, most personal computers and smartphones in people's homes that use multicore central processing units (such as AMD FX, Intel Core i7, or the multicore varieties of ARM-based chips) are also parallel computers using the MIMD (multiple instructions - multiple data) paradigm, a technology previously only used in digital electronic supercomputers. As of 2014, most digital electronic supercomputers are also cluster computers, a technology that can be used at home in the form of small Beowulf clusters. Parallel computation is also possible with non-digital or non-electronic computers. An example of a parallel computation system using the abacus would be a group of human computers using a number of abacus machines for computation and communicating using natural language. A digital computer can perform its operations in the decimal system, in binary, in ternary or in other numeral systems. As of 2014, all digital electronic computers commonly used, whether personal computers or supercomputers, are working in the binary number system and also use binary logic. A few ternary computers using ternary logic were built mainly in the Soviet Union as research projects. A digital electronic computer is not necessarily a transistorized computer: before the advent of the transistor, computers used vacuum tubes. The transistor enabled electronic computers to become much more powerful, and recent and future developments in digital electronics may enable humanity to build even more powerful electronic computers. One such possible development is the memristor. People living in the beginning of the 21st century use digital electronic computers for storing data, such as photos, music, documents, and for performing complex mathematical computations or for communication, commonly over a worldwide computer network called the internet which connects many of the world's computers. All these activities made possible by digital electronic computers could, in essence, be performed with non-digital or non-electronic computers if they were sufficiently powerful, but it was only the combination of electronics technology with digital computation in binary that enabled humanity to reach the computation power necessary for today's computing. Advances in quantum computing, DNA computing, optical computing or other technologies could lead to the development of more powerful computers in the future. Digital computers are inherently best described by discrete mathematics, while analog computers are most commonly associated with continuous mathematics. The philosophy of digital physics views the universe as being digital. Konrad Zuse wrote a book known as Rechnender Raum in which he described the whole universe as one all-encompassing computer.
Views: 10 Old Movies Reborn
Timeline of quantum computing | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_quantum_computing 00:00:04 1 1960s 00:00:19 2 1970s 00:01:49 3 1980s 00:03:43 4 1990s 00:08:33 5 2000s 00:11:31 5.1 2005 00:12:25 5.2 2006 00:14:56 5.3 2007 00:17:24 5.4 2008 00:19:01 5.5 2009 00:20:54 6 2010s 00:21:03 6.1 2010 00:22:19 6.2 2011 00:23:34 6.3 2012 00:24:42 6.4 2013 00:25:18 6.5 2014 00:26:01 6.6 2015 00:26:48 6.7 2016 00:27:24 6.8 2017 00:28:34 6.9 2018 00:29:46 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= This is a timeline of quantum computing.
Views: 7 wikipedia tts
Quantum mind | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_mind 00:01:15 1 History 00:02:15 2 Quantum mind approaches 00:02:25 2.1 Bohm 00:04:44 2.2 Penrose and Hameroff 00:11:19 2.3 Umezawa, Vitiello, Freeman 00:11:52 2.4 Pribram, Bohm, Kak 00:13:00 2.5 Stapp 00:14:25 2.6 David Pearce 00:15:27 3 Criticism 00:16:24 3.1 Conceptual problems 00:22:50 3.2 Practical problems 00:27:51 3.3 Ethical problems 00:34:30 4 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The quantum mind or quantum consciousness group of hypotheses propose that classical mechanics cannot explain consciousness. It posits that quantum mechanical phenomena, such as quantum entanglement and superposition, may play an important part in the brain's function and could contribute to form the basis of an explanation of consciousness. Hypotheses have been proposed about ways for quantum effects to be involved in the process of consciousness, but even those who advocate them admit that the hypotheses remain unproven, and possibly unprovable. Some of the proponents propose experiments that could demonstrate quantum consciousness, but the experiments have not yet been possible to perform. Quantum mechanical terms are commonly misinterpreted to enable pseudoscience. Phenomena such as nonlocality and the observer effect are vaguely attributed to consciousness, resulting in quantum mysticism. According to Sean Carroll, "No theory in the history of science has been more misused and abused by cranks and charlatans—and misunderstood by people struggling in good faith with difficult ideas." Prominent scientific skeptic Lawrence Krauss also conveyed that "No area of physics stimulates more nonsense in the public arena than quantum mechanics."
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
Theoretical computer science | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theoretical_computer_science 00:00:58 1 History 00:02:45 2 Topics 00:02:53 2.1 Algorithms 00:03:43 2.2 Data structures 00:04:44 2.3 Computational complexity theory 00:05:59 2.4 Distributed computation 00:07:05 2.5 Parallel computation 00:08:24 2.6 Very-large-scale integration 00:09:12 2.7 Machine learning 00:10:20 2.8 Computational biology 00:11:20 2.9 Computational geometry 00:12:53 2.10 Information theory 00:14:36 2.11 Cryptography 00:16:10 2.12 Quantum computation 00:17:45 2.13 Information-based complexity 00:18:17 2.14 Computational number theory 00:18:40 2.15 Symbolic computation 00:20:06 2.16 Program semantics 00:20:56 2.17 Formal methods 00:21:47 2.18 Automata theory 00:22:30 2.19 Coding theory 00:23:12 2.20 Computational learning theory 00:24:12 3 Organizations 00:24:31 4 Journals and newsletters 00:25:47 5 Conferences 00:27:36 6 See also 00:27:55 7 Notes 00:28:03 8 Further reading 00:28:37 9 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Theoretical computer science (TCS) is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on more mathematical topics of computing and includes the theory of computation. It is difficult to circumscribe the theoretical areas precisely. The ACM's Special Interest Group on Algorithms and Computation Theory (SIGACT) provides the following description: TCS covers a wide variety of topics including algorithms, data structures, computational complexity, parallel and distributed computation, probabilistic computation, quantum computation, automata theory, information theory, cryptography, program semantics and verification, machine learning, computational biology, computational economics, computational geometry, and computational number theory and algebra. Work in this field is often distinguished by its emphasis on mathematical technique and rigor.
Views: 0 wikipedia tts
What does integrated optical circuit mean?
 
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What does integrated optical circuit mean? A spoken definition of integrated optical circuit. Intro Sound: Typewriter - Tamskp Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Outro Music: Groove Groove - Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Intro/Outro Photo: The best days are not planned - Marcus Hansson Licensed under CC-BY-2.0 Book Image: Open Book template PSD - DougitDesign Licensed under CC:BA 3.0 Text derived from: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/integrated_optical_circuit Text to Speech powered by TTS-API.COM
Trapped ion quantum computer | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trapped_ion_quantum_computer 00:01:38 1 The Paul ion trap 00:05:34 2 History of trapped ion quantum computing 00:06:35 3 Requirements for quantum computation 00:07:05 3.1 Qubits 00:08:11 3.2 Initialization 00:09:34 3.3 Measurement 00:10:45 3.4 Arbitrary single qubit rotation 00:14:16 3.5 Two qubit entangling gates 00:15:06 3.6 Scalable trap designs 00:17:16 3.6.1 Decoherence in Scalable Traps 00:19:40 3.7 Overall analysis of DiVincenzo's criteria 00:20:27 4 CNOT gate implementation Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7759775400737542 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-F "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A trapped ion quantum computer is one proposed approach to a large-scale quantum computer. Ions, or charged atomic particles, can be confined and suspended in free space using electromagnetic fields. Qubits are stored in stable electronic states of each ion, and quantum information can be transferred through the collective quantized motion of the ions in a shared trap (interacting through the Coulomb force). Lasers are applied to induce coupling between the qubit states (for single qubit operations) or coupling between the internal qubit states and the external motional states (for entanglement between qubits).The fundamental operations of a quantum computer have been demonstrated experimentally with the currently highest accuracy in trapped ion systems. Promising schemes in development to scale the system to arbitrarily large numbers of qubits include transporting ions to spatially distinct locations in an array of ion traps, building large entangled states via photonically connected networks of remotely entangled ion chains, and combinations of these two ideas. This makes the trapped ion quantum computer system one of the most promising architectures for a scalable, universal quantum computer. As of May 2011, the largest number of particles to be controllably entangled is 14 trapped ions.
Views: 6 wikipedia tts
Fiber-optic communication | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber-optic_communication 00:00:49 1 Background 00:01:48 2 Applications 00:03:54 3 History 00:11:57 4 Technology 00:12:42 4.1 Transmitters 00:17:50 4.2 Receivers 00:19:27 4.3 Digital predistortion 00:21:45 4.4 Fiber cable types 00:24:33 4.5 Amplification 00:27:04 4.6 Wavelength-division multiplexing 00:28:01 5 Parameters 00:28:11 5.1 Bandwidth–distance product 00:29:12 5.2 Record speeds 00:29:48 5.2.1 Standard fibre cables 00:30:18 5.2.2 Specialised cables 00:30:54 5.2.3 New techniques 00:32:13 5.3 Dispersion 00:34:20 5.4 Attenuation 00:35:13 5.5 Transmission windows 00:36:39 5.6 Regeneration 00:37:58 5.7 Last mile 00:40:12 6 Comparison with electrical transmission 00:45:08 7 Governing standards 00:46:46 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8852957004020061 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. Fiber is preferred over electrical cabling when high bandwidth, long distance, or immunity to electromagnetic interference are required. Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet communication, and cable television signals. Researchers at Bell Labs have reached internet speeds of over 100 petabit×kilometer per second using fiber-optic communication.
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
Computing device | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:01:26
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer 00:02:06 1 Etymology 00:03:55 2 History 00:04:03 2.1 Pre-20th century 00:09:01 2.2 First computing device 00:10:58 2.3 Analog computers 00:12:30 2.4 Digital computers 00:12:39 2.4.1 Electromechanical 00:14:26 2.4.2 Vacuum tubes and digital electronic circuits 00:18:31 2.5 Modern computers 00:18:40 2.5.1 Concept of modern computer 00:19:48 2.5.2 Stored programs 00:22:15 2.5.3 Transistors 00:23:45 2.5.4 Integrated circuits 00:25:45 2.6 Mobile computers 00:26:48 3 Types 00:27:01 3.1 Based on uses 00:27:15 3.2 Based on sizes 00:27:42 4 Hardware 00:28:11 4.1 History of computing hardware 00:28:20 4.2 Other hardware topics 00:29:15 4.3 Input devices 00:30:05 4.4 Output devices 00:30:32 4.5 Control unit 00:33:06 4.6 Central processing unit (CPU) 00:33:36 4.7 Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) 00:35:18 4.8 Memory 00:39:15 4.9 Input/output (I/O) 00:40:22 4.10 Multitasking 00:42:24 4.11 Multiprocessing 00:43:41 5 Software 00:44:39 5.1 Languages 00:44:58 5.2 Programs 00:45:59 5.2.1 Stored program architecture 00:48:21 5.2.2 Machine code 00:50:27 5.2.3 Programming language 00:51:07 5.2.3.1 Low-level languages 00:51:38 5.2.3.2 High-level languages 00:52:51 5.2.4 Program design 00:53:54 5.2.5 Bugs 00:55:05 6 Networking and the Internet 00:57:03 7 Unconventional computers 00:57:52 8 Future 00:58:34 8.1 Computer architecture paradigms 00:59:56 8.2 Artificial intelligence 01:00:51 9 Professions and organizations Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8869396766957351 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed, power, and versatility of computers have been increasing dramatically ever since then. Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices (keyboards, mice, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screens, printers, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (e.g., the 2000s-era touchscreen). Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.
Views: 2 wikipedia tts
ARTIFICIAL neural network - WikiVidi Documentary
 
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Artificial neural networks or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. The neural network itself isn't an algorithm,, but rather a framework for many different machine learning algorithms to work together and process complex data inputs. Such systems "learn" to perform tasks by considering examples, generally without being programmed with any task-specific rules. For example, in image recognition, they might learn to identify images that contain cats by analyzing example images that have been manually labeled as "cat" or "no cat" and using the results to identify cats in other images. They do this without any prior knowledge about cats, and more , that they have fur, tails, whiskers and cat-like faces. Instead, they automatically generate identifying characteristics from the learning material that they process. An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nodes called artificial neurons, w... http://www.wikividi.com ____________________________________ Shortcuts to chapters: 00:03:15 History 00:03:46 Hebbian learning 00:06:05 Backpropagation 00:09:00 Hardware-based designs 00:09:38 Contests 00:11:56 Convolutional networks 00:12:52 Models 00:13:35 Neurons 00:14:11 Connections, weights and biases 00:14:40 Propagation function 00:15:12 Learning rule 00:15:32 Neural networks as functions ____________________________________ Copyright WikiVidi. Licensed under Creative Commons. Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_neural_network
Information and communication technologies for development | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_and_communication_technologies_for_development 00:01:08 1 History 00:06:01 2 Theoretical background 00:09:42 2.1 Traditions of First Generation ICTD Research 00:12:57 3 ICT access and use 00:18:11 3.1 ICTD hit for six 00:18:54 3.2 Global Trends 00:22:03 3.3 Data 00:23:22 3.4 ICTD training 00:25:48 4 Applications 00:27:22 4.1 Agriculture 00:34:54 4.2 Climate change and environment 00:49:00 4.3 Education 00:52:49 4.3.1 ICT for Education 00:55:30 4.4 Literacy 01:00:26 4.5 Health 01:04:19 4.6 e-Commerce 01:08:05 4.7 E-government and civic engagement 01:11:42 5 Civic Engagement Through Social Media 01:16:25 5.1 Business 01:17:11 5.2 Other 01:32:12 5.3 ICT for Food Security 01:38:08 6 Organizations 01:45:33 6.1 Lessons learned 01:47:52 6.2 Sustainability and Scalability 01:50:49 6.3 Sustainable Development Goals 01:52:09 6.3.1 Goal Number 1: No Poverty 01:54:05 6.3.2 Goal Number 2: Zero Hunger 01:58:51 6.3.3 Goal Number 3: Good Health & Well-being 02:00:03 6.3.4 Goal Number 4: Quality Education 02:01:40 6.3.5 Goal Number 5: Gender Equality 02:02:24 6.3.6 Goal Number 6: Clean Water and Sanitation 02:04:04 6.3.7 Goal 7: Affordable and Clean Energy 02:04:40 6.3.8 Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth 02:05:15 6.3.9 Goal Number 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure 02:06:27 6.3.10 Goal Number 10: Reduced Inequalities 02:07:12 6.3.11 Goal Number 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities 02:08:04 6.3.12 Goal Number 12: Responsible Consumption and Production 02:08:47 6.3.13 Goal Number 13: Climate Action 02:09:58 6.3.14 Goal Number 14: Life Below Water 02:10:54 6.3.15 Goal Number 15: Life on Land 02:12:09 6.3.16 Goal Number 16: Peace, Justice & Strong Institutions 02:13:08 6.3.17 Goal Number 17: Partnerships for the Goals 02:15:59 6.3.18 Challenges 02:19:18 7 Inclusive innovation 02:29:38 7.1 Business Strategies for the ICT Sector in Expanding Economic Opportunity 02:30:29 7.2 Creating Inclusive Business Models 02:31:24 7.3 Horizontal Deepening 02:32:37 7.4 Developing Local Partner Networks 02:35:09 8 Impact assessment 02:39:55 8.1 Categorizing impact and its assessment 02:42:16 9 Mainstreaming and sidestreaming 02:45:10 10 Vision of a compelling narrative 02:47:11 11 ICT 4D Value Chain 02:49:15 12 Criticisms and challenges 02:53:36 12.1 Myths of ICT4D 02:59:56 12.2 The 9 myths of ICT in education 03:06:16 12.3 Neoliberalization of education 03:11:09 12.4 Three key challenges 03:12:59 12.5 Post-2015 gaps – new development-oriented priorities 03:21:56 12.6 Other issues 03:25:51 12.6.1 E-waste through improved design and recycling 03:27:32 12.6.2 Initial problems 03:28:38 12.7 Rebound environmental effects 03:29:44 12.8 The Dark Side of ICT4D 03:33:02 13 World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) + 10 Challenges 03:34:46 14 WSIS + 10 Beyond 2015 Priorities 03:38:33 15 ICT4D and WSIS Moving Forward 03:42:28 16 Case Studies in Different Countries and Regions 03:42:39 16.1 Africa 03:50:55 16.2 Bangladesh 03:52:17 16.2.1 In Bangladesh 03:54:06 16.3 Cambodia 03:57:41 16.4 China 03:57:49 16.4.1 Establishing eCommunity centers 03:59:01 16.4.2 The CABTS Network 04:00:04 16.4.3 China's agricultural information dissemination models 04:02:14 16.5 Indonesia 04:02:23 16.5.1 ICT policy 04:03:51 16.5.2 Infrastructure 04:05:13 16.5.3 Program planning and development 04:06:41 16.5.4 Content provision 04:07:39 16.5.5 Capability building 04:08:42 16.6 Kingdom of Bhutan 04:11:58 16.7 Lao PDR 04:13:27 16.8 Malaysia 04:14:37 16.8.1 Population and human resource development (poverty eradication) 04:16:07 16.8.2 Regional and agriculture development 04:17:47 16.8.3 Health 04:18:21 16.8.4 Youth and woman development 04:19:19 16.8.5 Government 04:19:49 16.9 New Zealand 04:21:50 16.9.1 Millennium Development Goals - 2015 04:22:37 16.9.2 National ICT Policies 04:23:09 16.9.3 Studies comparing New Zealand and Australia 04:25:59 16.10 Philippines 04:28:27 16.10.1 Applications 04:46:55 16.10.1.1 ICT related bills 04:48:53 16.10.2 ICT - related programs and projects in the Philippinessup[273]/sup 04:49:40 16.10.2.1 Agricultural Extension and the OPAPA 04:53:09 16.11 Thailand 04:54:18 16.11.1 School Net Thailand 04:54:49 16.11.2 Government information network 04:55:16 16.11.3 ICT laws 04:55:35 16.11.4 IT 2010 04:56:18 16.11.5 ICT 2020/SMART THAILAND 2020 04:58:48 16.12 United Arab Emirates 05:00:24 16.13 Zimbabwe 05:02:41 17 International programs, agencies, and strategies 05:02:54 17.1 APTIVATE 05:03:41 17.2 CIDA 05:09:04 17.3 eLAC 05:10:51 17.4 GFAR 05:14:28 17.5 Girls in ICT 05:17:05 17.6 ICT4Peace 05:23:02 17.7 IDRC 05:23:40 17.8 IICD 05:25:27 17.9 SDC 05:26:52 17.10 SiRC 05:28:19 17.11 SIRCA 05:36:00 17.12 SPIDER 05:36:57 17.13 UNCTAD 05:38:03 17.14 W.TEC 05:39:48 18 Future 05:48:27 19 See also 05:48:36 20 Sources Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at aro ...
Views: 95 wikipedia tts
Hardware random number generator | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardware_random_number_generator 00:03:17 1 Uses 00:04:11 1.1 Cryptography 00:05:29 2 Early work 00:07:57 3 Physical phenomena with random properties 00:08:08 3.1 Quantum random properties 00:11:19 3.2 Classical random properties 00:13:46 3.2.1 Clock drift 00:17:44 4 Dealing with bias 00:18:40 4.1 Software whitening 00:23:19 4.2 PRNG with periodically refreshed random key 00:24:00 5 Using observed events 00:27:22 6 Problems 00:28:20 6.1 Attacks 00:28:56 6.2 Estimating entropy 00:29:35 6.3 Performance test 00:31:35 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7945921940284152 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-F "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In computing, a hardware random number generator (HRNG) or true random number generator (TRNG) is a device that generates random numbers from a physical process, rather than by means of an algorithm. Such devices are often based on microscopic phenomena that generate low-level, statistically random "noise" signals, such as thermal noise, the photoelectric effect, involving a beam splitter, and other quantum phenomena. These stochastic processes are, in theory, completely unpredictable, and the theory's assertions of unpredictability are subject to experimental test. This is in contrast to the common paradigm of pseudo-random number generation commonly implemented in computer programs or cryptographic hardware. A hardware random number generator typically consists of a transducer to convert some aspect of the physical phenomena to an electrical signal, an amplifier and other electronic circuitry to increase the amplitude of the random fluctuations to a measurable level, and some type of analog to digital converter to convert the output into a digital number, often a simple binary digit 0 or 1. By repeatedly sampling the randomly varying signal, a series of random numbers is attained. The main application for electronic hardware random number generators is in cryptography, where they are used to generate random cryptographic keys to transmit data securely. They are widely used in Internet encryption protocols such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Random number generators can also be built from "random" macroscopic processes, using devices such as coin flipping, dice, roulette wheels and lottery machines. The presence of unpredictability in these phenomena can be justified by the theory of unstable dynamical systems and chaos theory. Even though macroscopic processes are deterministic under Newtonian mechanics, the output of a well-designed device like a roulette wheel cannot be predicted in practice, because it depends on the sensitive, micro-details of the initial conditions of each use. Although dice have been mostly used in gambling, and as "randomizing" elements in games (e.g. role playing games), the Victorian scientist Francis Galton described a way to use dice to explicitly generate random numbers for scientific purposes in 1890.Hardware random number generators generally produce only a limited number of random bits per second. In order to increase the available output data rate, they are often used to generate the "seed" for a faster cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator, which then generates a pseudorandom output sequence at a much higher data rate.
Views: 3 Subhajit Sahu
Advanced Research Projects Agency | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DARPA 00:01:32 1 Mission 00:01:51 2 History 00:02:00 2.1 Early history (1959–1969) 00:07:38 2.2 Later history (1970–1980) 00:09:46 2.3 Recent history (1981–present) 00:11:50 3 Organization 00:12:00 3.1 Current program offices 00:15:41 3.2 Former offices 00:19:49 4 Projects 00:20:20 4.1 Active projects 00:28:25 4.2 Past or transitioned projects 00:28:37 5 Notable fiction 00:29:44 6 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.836218106997713 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. Originally known as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the agency was created in February 1958 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1 in 1957. By collaborating with academic, industry, and government partners, DARPA formulates and executes research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, often beyond immediate U.S. military requirements.DARPA-funded projects have provided significant technologies that influenced many non-military fields, such as computer networking and the basis for the modern Internet, and graphical user interfaces in information technology. DARPA is independent of other military research and development and reports directly to senior Department of Defense management. DARPA has about 220 employees, of whom approximately 100 are in management.The name of the organization first changed from its founding name ARPA to DARPA in March 1972, briefly changing back to ARPA in February 1993, only to revert to DARPA in March 1996.
Views: 7 wikipedia tts
Cloud-based quantum computing | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud-based_quantum_computing 00:00:19 1 Application 00:01:11 2 Existing platforms Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8244605578569024 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Cloud-based quantum computing is the invocation of quantum emulators, simulators or processors through the cloud. Increasingly, cloud services are being looked on as the method for providing access to quantum processing.
Views: 0 wikipedia tts
Alán Aspuru-Guzik: "Billions and Billions of Molecules"
 
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Alán Aspuru-Guzik visited the Quantum AI Lab at Google LA on May 12, 2015 and gave this talk: "Billions and Billions of Molecules: Molecular Materials Discovery in the Age of Machine Learning" Abstract: Many of the challenges of the twenty-first century are related to molecular processes such as the generation, transmission, and storage of clean energy, water purification and desalination. These transformations require a next generation of more efficient and ecologically-friendly materials. In the life sciences, we face similar challenges, for example drug-resistant bacterial strains require novel antibiotics. One of the paradigm shifts that the theoretical and experimental chemists needs to embrace is that of accelerated molecular discovery: The design cycles need to be sped up by the constant interaction of theoreticians and experimentalists, the use of high-throughput computational techniques, tools from machine learning and big data, and the development of public materials databases. I will describe three projects from my research group that aim to operate in this accelerated design cycle. First, I will describe our efforts on the Harvard Clean Energy Project (http://cleanenergy.harvard.edu), a search for materials for organic solar cells. I will continue by talking about our work on developing organic molecules for energy storage in flow batteries. Finally, I will describe our work towards the discovery of novel molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. If time permits, I will talk about molecular networks related to the origins of life. Bio: Professor Alán Aspuru-Guzik is currently Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Harvard University. He began at Harvard in​ 2006 and ​was promoted to Full Professor in 2013. Alán received his B.Sc.​ Chemistry from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in 1999. He received the Gabino Barreda Medal from UNAM. ​He obtained a PhD in Physical Chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley in 2004, under Professor William A. Lester, Jr., he was a postdoctoral scholar in the group of Martin Head-Gordon at UC Berkeley from 2005-2006. In 2009, Professor Aspuru-Guzik received the DARPA Young Faculty Award, the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar award and the Sloan Research Fellowship. In 2010, he received the Everett-Mendelsson Graduate Mentoring Award and received the HP Outstanding Junior Faculty award by the Computers in Chemistry division of the American Chemical Society. In the same year, he was selected as a Top Innovator Under 35 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Review magazine. In 2012, he was elected as a fellow of the American Physical Society, and in 2013, he received the ACS Early Career Award in Theoretical Chemistry. He is associate editor of the journal Chemical Science. Professor Aspuru-Guzik carries out research at the interface of quantum information and chemistry. In particular, he is interested in the use of quantum computers and dedicated quantum simulators for chemical systems. He has proposed quantum algorithms for the simulation of molecular electronic structure, dynamics and the calculation of molecular properties. He recently has proposed two new approaches for quantum simulation: the variational quantum eigensolver and the adiabatic quantum chemistry approach. He also proposed the demon-like algorithmic cooling algorithm. He has studied the role of quantum coherence in excitonic energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes. Alán has been involved as a theoretician in several experimental demonstrations of quantum simulators using quantum optics, nuclear magnetic resonance, nitrogen vacancy centers and recently superconducting qubits. ​Alán develops methodology for the high-throughput search of organic materials, especially organic materials. This has led to his discovery of candidate molecules for high mobility organic semiconductors, organic flow battery molecules and high-performance molecules for organic light-emitting diodes. Alan is very interested in the interface of machine learning and material discovery and has carried out the largest set of quantum chemistry calculations to date.
Views: 12659 GoogleTechTalks
The Future of Augmented Intelligence: If You Can’t Beat ‘em, Join ‘em
 
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Computers are getting smarter and more creative, offering spectacular possibilities to improve the human condition. There’s a call to redefine Artificial Intelligence as Augmented Intelligence, to emphasize the potential of humans working with AI as opposed to being replaced by AI. In this program, AI experts, data scientists, engineers, and ethicists explore how we can work alongside machines, when we should trust machines to make cognitive decisions, and how all of society can benefit from the productive and financial gains promised by advances in AI. PARTICIPANTS: Vasant Dhar, Kathryn Hume, S. Matthew Liao, John R. Smith MODERATOR: Steve Lohr Original program date: JUNE 3, 2017 This program is part of the Big Ideas Series, made possible with support from the John Templeton Foundation. Subscribe to our YouTube Channel for all the latest from WSF Visit our Website: http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/ Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/worldsciencefestival Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/WorldSciFest KEY TOPICS: Participant Introductions 00:06 What is happening now in the field of A.I. 03:10 What is the control problem? 15:32 Is machine learning objective? 27:15 Machine learning and creativity 38:50 "Tim's Vermeer" theory 49:40 Q&A - 56:32 Filmed live at the 2017 World Science Festival and edited for Youtube.
Views: 25471 World Science Festival
Digital computing | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:08:35
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer 00:02:19 1 Etymology 00:04:16 2 History 00:04:25 2.1 Pre-20th century 00:09:53 2.2 First computing device 00:12:00 2.3 Analog computers 00:13:41 2.4 Digital computers 00:13:50 2.4.1 Electromechanical 00:15:47 2.4.2 Vacuum tubes and digital electronic circuits 00:20:14 2.5 Modern computers 00:20:23 2.5.1 Concept of modern computer 00:21:38 2.5.2 Stored programs 00:24:19 2.5.3 Transistors 00:25:57 2.5.4 Integrated circuits 00:28:08 2.6 Mobile computers 00:29:16 3 Types 00:29:29 3.1 Based on uses 00:29:44 3.2 Based on sizes 00:30:12 4 Hardware 00:30:42 4.1 History of computing hardware 00:30:52 4.2 Other hardware topics 00:31:52 4.3 Input devices 00:32:45 4.4 Output devices 00:33:14 4.5 Control unit 00:36:00 4.6 Central processing unit (CPU) 00:36:33 4.7 Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) 00:38:23 4.8 Memory 00:42:44 4.9 Input/output (I/O) 00:43:58 4.10 Multitasking 00:46:09 4.11 Multiprocessing 00:47:33 5 Software 00:48:36 5.1 Languages 00:48:56 5.2 Application Software 00:49:05 5.3 Programs 00:50:12 5.3.1 Stored program architecture 00:52:47 5.3.2 Machine code 00:55:05 5.3.3 Programming language 00:55:49 5.3.3.1 Low-level languages 00:56:23 5.3.3.2 High-level languages/third generation language 00:57:43 5.3.4 Fourth-generation languages 00:58:09 5.3.5 Program design 00:59:20 5.3.6 Bugs 01:00:37 6 Firmware 01:01:02 7 Networking and the Internet 01:03:10 8 Unconventional computers 01:04:03 9 Unconventional computing 01:04:44 10 Future 01:05:29 10.1 Computer architecture paradigms 01:06:57 10.2 Artificial intelligence 01:07:59 11 Professions and organizations Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8853145694054065 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed, power, and versatility of computers have been increasing dramatically ever since then. Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices (keyboards, mice, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screens, printers, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (e.g., the 2000s-era touchscreen). Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.
Views: 2 wikipedia tts
Quantum technology | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_technology 00:00:22 1 Applications 00:00:31 1.1 Sensing 00:01:29 1.2 Secure communications 00:02:03 1.3 Computing 00:02:52 2 The first and second quantum revolutions 00:03:48 3 History 00:05:27 4 National programmes 00:06:16 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Quantum technology is a new field of physics and engineering, which transitions some of the properties of quantum mechanics, especially quantum entanglement, quantum superposition and quantum tunnelling, into practical applications such as quantum computing, quantum sensors, quantum cryptography, quantum simulation, quantum metrology and quantum imaging.
Views: 0 wikipedia tts
The AI Gaming Revolution
 
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Artificial intelligences that play abstract, strategic board games have come a long way, but how do their "brains" work? Hosted by: Hank Green ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters -- we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Kevin Bealer, Justin Lentz, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Patrick Merrithew, Accalia Elementia, Fatima Iqbal, Benny, Kyle Anderson, Mike Frayn, Tim Curwick, Will and Sonja Marple, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Kathy Philip, Patrick D. Ashmore, Thomas J., charles george, and Bader AlGhamdi. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: http://www.aaai.org/ojs/index.php/aimagazine/article/view/1848/1746 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0004370201001291 http://www.usgo.org/brief-history-go http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/03/the-invisible-opponent/475611/ http://journals.lww.com/neurosurgery/Fulltext/2016/06000/Ready_or_Not,_Here_We_Go___Decision_Making.2.aspx https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_PP704.html http://www.welivesecurity.com/2010/12/29/what-are-heuristics/ http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~jxb/IAI/w7.pdf http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1038/nature14541?r3_referer=nature Images: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chatbot.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IBM_Electronic_Data_Processing_Machine_-_GPN-2000-001881.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IBM_729_tape_drives.agr.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Opening_chess_position_from_black_side.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kasparov-26.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Deep_Blue.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Go_game.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blank_Go_board.png https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chess_Board.svg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Antlia_Dwarf_PGC_29194_Hubble_WikiSky.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Go_game_(2094497615).jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:FloorGoban.JPG https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lee_Se-dol_2012.jpg
Views: 619145 SciShow
Computing technology | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computing 00:00:30 1 Definitions 00:03:06 2 History 00:04:51 3 Computer 00:05:54 3.1 Computer software and hardware 00:07:02 3.1.1 Application software 00:08:43 3.1.2 System software 00:09:20 3.2 Computer network 00:10:58 3.2.1 Internet 00:11:43 3.3 Computer programming 00:12:56 3.3.1 Computer programmer 00:13:59 3.4 Computer industry 00:14:28 3.4.1 Software industry 00:14:52 4 Sub-disciplines of computing 00:15:02 4.1 Computer engineering 00:15:58 4.2 Software engineering 00:17:14 4.3 Computer science 00:18:33 4.4 Information systems 00:19:50 4.4.1 Computer Information System(s) (CIS) 00:20:15 4.5 Information technology 00:21:03 4.5.1 Systems administration 00:21:58 5 Research and emerging technologies 00:23:47 6 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9042914376217337 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Computing is any activity that uses computers. It includes developing hardware and software, and using computers to manage and process information, communicate and entertain. Computing is a critically important, integral component of modern industrial technology. Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, and information technology.
Views: 0 Subhajit Sahu
History of computer and video games | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_video_games 00:03:34 1 Early history (1948–1972) 00:03:46 1.1 Defining the video game 00:05:10 1.2 Origins of electronic computer games 00:09:21 1.3 iSpacewar!/i 00:13:12 1.4 The commercialization of video games 00:16:39 2 A new industry 00:16:49 2.1 Early arcade video games (1972–1978) 00:20:52 2.2 First generation of home consoles and the iPong/i clones (1972–1978) 00:23:31 2.3 Mainframe computer games (1971–1979) 00:28:17 3 Golden age 00:28:26 3.1 Golden age of arcade video games (1978–1982) 00:32:51 3.2 Second generation consoles (1976–1982) 00:37:36 3.3 Early home computer games (1976–1982) 00:39:21 4 1980s 00:39:57 4.1 Gaming computers 00:45:40 4.2 Early online gaming 00:48:29 4.3 Handheld LCD games 00:49:30 4.4 Video game crash of 1983 00:50:34 4.5 Third generation consoles (1983–1995) (8-bit) 00:55:01 4.6 Fourth generation consoles (1987–2004) (16-bit) 00:59:10 5 1990s 01:00:53 5.1 Resurgence and decline of arcades 01:01:37 5.1.1 Transition to 3D 01:04:58 5.2 Handhelds come of age 01:06:02 5.3 PC gaming 01:10:46 5.4 Fifth generation consoles (1993–2005) (32- and 64-bit) 01:16:20 5.4.1 Transition to 3D and CDs 01:17:46 5.5 Mobile phone gaming 01:18:26 6 2000s 01:19:54 6.1 Sixth generation consoles (1998–2013) 01:25:29 6.1.1 Return of alternative controllers 01:26:37 6.2 Online gaming rises to prominence 01:28:00 6.3 Mobile games 01:30:53 6.4 Seventh generation consoles (2005–present) 01:35:25 6.4.1 Increases in development budgets 01:36:07 6.5 Rise of casual PC games 01:37:46 6.6 Cloud computing comes to games 01:38:29 7 2010s 01:39:47 7.1 Eighth generation consoles (2012–present) 01:46:02 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The history of video games goes as far back as the early 1950s, when academic computer scientists began designing simple games and simulations as part of their research or just for fun. At M.I.T. in the 1960s, professors and students played games such as 3D tic-tac-toe and Moon Landing. These games were played on computer such as the IBM 1560, and moves were made by means of punch cards. Video gaming did not reach mainstream popularity until the 1970s and 1980s, when video arcade games and gaming consoles using joysticks, buttons, and other controllers, along with graphics on computer screens and home computer games were introduced to the general public. Since the 1980s, video gaming has become a popular form of entertainment and a part of modern popular culture in most parts of the world. One of the early games was Spacewar!, which was developed by computer scientists. Early arcade video games developed from 1972 to 1978. During the 1970s, the first generation of home consoles emerged, including the popular game Pong and various "clones". The 1970s was also the era of mainframe computer games. The golden age of arcade video games was from 1978 to 1982. Video arcades with large, graphics-decorated coin-operated machines were common at malls and popular, affordable home consoles such as the Atari 2600 and Intellivision enabled people to play games on their home TVs. During the 1980s, gaming computers, early online gaming and handheld LCD games emerged; this era was affected by the video game crash of 1983. From 1976 to 1992, the second generation of video consoles emerged. The third generation of consoles, which were 8-bit units, emerged from 1983 to 1995. The fourth generation of consoles, which were 16-bit models, emerged from 1987 to 1999. The 1990s saw the resurgence and decline of arcades, the transition to 3D video games, improved handheld games, and PC gaming. The fifth generation of consoles, which were 32 and 64-bit units, was from 1993 to 2006. During this era, mobile phone gaming emerged. During the 2000s, the sixth generation of consoles emerged (1998–2013). During this period, online gaming ...
Views: 40 wikipedia tts
List of Christians in science and technology | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Christians_in_science_and_technology 00:00:15 1 Before the eighteenth century 00:06:46 2 1701–1800 A.D. (18th century) 00:10:56 3 1801–1900 A.D. (19th century) 00:23:06 4 1901–2000 A.D. (20th century) 00:41:20 5 2001–today (21st century) 00:48:05 6 Currently living 00:48:14 6.1 Biological and biomedical sciences 00:56:44 6.2 Chemistry 01:00:18 6.3 Physics and astronomy 01:17:18 6.4 Earth sciences 01:19:25 6.5 Engineering 01:23:57 6.6 Others 01:28:48 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9420162967172334 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= This is a list of Christians in science and technology. Persons in this list should have their Christianity as relevant to their notable activities or public life, and who have publicly identified themselves as Christians or as of a Christian denomination.
Views: 29 wikipedia tts
GEO600 | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GEO600 00:01:06 1 History 00:03:15 2 Hardware 00:03:46 2.1 Suspensions and seismic isolation 00:04:53 2.2 Optics 00:05:29 2.3 Advanced features 00:07:46 3 Sensitivity and measurements 00:08:24 4 Joint science run with LIGO 00:09:30 5 Claims on holographic properties of spacetime 00:11:49 6 Data/ [email protected] 00:13:21 7 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= GEO600 is a gravitational wave detector located near Sarstedt in the South of Hanover, Germany. It is designed and operated by scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics and the Leibniz Universität Hannover, along with University of Glasgow, University of Birmingham and Cardiff University in the United Kingdom, and is funded by the Max Planck Society and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). GEO600 is part of a worldwide network of gravitational wave detectors. This instrument, and its sister interferometric detectors, when operational, are some of the most sensitive gravitational wave detectors ever designed. They are designed to detect relative changes in distance of the order of 10−21, about the size of a single atom compared to the distance from the Sun to the Earth. GEO600 is capable of detecting gravitational waves in the frequency range 50 Hz to 1.5 kHz. Construction on the project began in 1995.
Views: 0 Subhajit Sahu

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